Social Scientist

January 16, 2010

Economics Reviewer

Filed under: Reviewer Economics @ 4:57 am and

Reviewer in Economics:

Macroeconomics – study of the whole economy

Dimensions in the Economics-They are the foundation of economy

Production-is the combination and use of all factors producing goods and services that will satisfy the needs of man.

4 factors of production:

  • Land
  • Labor
  • Capital (fixed, circulating, productive, special)
  • Entrepreneur

2 sectors of economy:

  • Household
  • Business firms
Investment

Circular Flow Diagram:

Income
Consumption
Market for finished product

Market

For

Capital

Household

Business

Firms

Market for factors of production
Land, Labor, capital, entrepreneur
Profit, rent, wages, interest
Income

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) – refers to the total market value of goods and services produced within the country for one year.

Gross National Product (GNP) – refers to the total market value of all the final products and services produced in the country.

Kinds of GNP

  1. Potential -estimated total production of the country based on the productivity & capacity of the factors. (estimates, projection, productivity)
  2. Actual –amount of produced goods & services attained in a country for 1 year.
  3. Nominal –refers to the total production of the country based on the prevailing price in the market. (current price)
  4. Real –value of the country’s production based on the price in a given base year (constant price)
X 100

Growth rate= GNP present yr – GNP previous yr

Previous GNP

Main components of National Income (NI)

  1. a. Compensation of employees(CE)

-benefits, commission, allowance of employees

  1. b. Entrepreneurial income(EI)

-income of entrepreneur as factor of projection

  1. c. Corporate income(CI)

-funds for business expansion income by corporations

  1. d. Government income(GI)

-incomes received by the government

Formula for NI:

NI = CE+EI+CI+GI

Capital Consumption Allowance (CCA) -funds for new machinery and facilities.

Indirect business taxes (IBT) – tax imposed on the products

Formula for GNP:

GNP = NI+IBT+CCA

Final expenditure approach

  1. Government expenditure (G)
  2. Personal expenditure (P)
  3. Business Expenditure
  4. Net Export (x)(m)
  5. Net factor income from abroad (NFIA)
  6. Statistical Discrepancy (SD

Formula for GNP:

GNP = G+P+B+(x-m) +NFIA+SD

Inflation – The continuing increases in the general price level of commodities

Hyperinflation – prices continue to increase every hour, day, and week

GNP deflator – the average price index used to adjust the current GNP against constant GNP

GNP at constant prices =GNP at current prices

GNP deflator

Wholesale price index – it shows and measures the changes in the price of finished products, intermediate goods and crude materials in wholesale and retail training

Consumer price index (CPI) – measures the average percentage in the change of retail prices of commodities usually purchased by consumers.

Computation of weighted price:

  1. weight x price, to get the TWP
  2. combine the entire WP
  3. compute for CPI using this formula:
x 100

CPI = TWP present yr

TWP base yr

x 100 = 100

CPI (base year) = TWP base yr

TWP base yr

x 100

Inflation Rate = CPI py – CPI by

CPI (by)

PPP = 100

CPI PY

Kinds of Inflation:

  1. Demand pull – it is the condition where aggregate demand is more than the aggregate supply.
  2. Cost-push – the increase in the production costs of firms leads to price increases.
  3. Structural inflation – there is competition among wage earners and profit earners

Causes of inflation:

  • Military expenses
    • Import dependent
    • Export oriented
    • Monopoly cartel
    • Foreign debt

Effects of Inflation:

Groups that benefit:

  • Borrowers
  • Speculators
  • People w/o fixed income

Groups that don’t benefit:

  • Lenders
  • People w/ fixed income
  • Savers/depositors

Solutions of Inflation:

-through monetary policies

Income – the money received by an individual as payment for producing goods and services.

Per Capita Income (PCI) – the income received by an individual if the total population divides the total production

GNP

= GNP per capita

Population

NI

= NI per capita

Population

Simple theory of income determination

Symbols:

Y -aggregate income

C -aggregate consumption

S -aggregate saving

Z -aggregate demand

I -investment

T -tax

G -government

NL -net lending

x -export

m -import

Condition of general equilibrium

  1. Y = C + S
  2. Z= C + I
  3. Y= Z
  4. C+ S = C + I
  5. S = I
  6. C + S + T = C + I + G
  7. Y=  C + I + G
  8. C + S + T + NL = C + I + G + (x-m)
  9. Y = C + I + G + (x-m)

Economic progress – is the result of a process that shows changes in economy

Principles and theories on progress and development:

  1. Theory of Physiocrats (Francois Quesnay)

-significant role of agriculture

  1. Theory of Adam Smith

-centered in the development of production through specialization

  1. Theory of David Ricardo

-centered on the advantage provided by the possession of natural        resources, particularly land.

  1. Neoclassical school

-competition is an important mechanism

Models on progress and development

  • Model on capital (Roy Harrod)

– Abundant, sufficient capital is vital for economic progress

  • Model on Technology (Nicholas Caldor)

-important role of technology

  • Model of cumulative process (Gunnar Myrdal)

-cumulative process is the key to economic development

  • Innovation theory (Joseph Schumpeter)

-gave emphasis on important role played by innovator in economic      development

  • Theory of Karl Marx

-derived from beliefs of the classicist emphasis on labor

Walt Rostow’s Stages of growth:

  1. Traditional society
  2. Pre-conditions for take-off
  3. Take-off
  4. Drive to maturity
  5. Age of high mass consumption

January 10, 2010

Computer Games in Students’ Lives: An Assessment

Filed under: Research Papers @ 1:19 am and

Computer Games in Students’ Lives: An Assessment

by:

DR. RONNIE G. CAINGLET

A Research Paper Submitted to the

New Era University Research Center

May 2002

I. Background of the Study

The rapid advancement of technology greatly affects the lives of individuals. Any society in the world has to adapt to every change that takes place in different arenas of technological advancements because if one will not go with the winds of change, one will be left out in the community of nations that regard technology as a means for development. It is a reality that technology eases the life of man, and that sometimes man is enslaved by this technology, to the point of being lazy. In other words, there are positive and negative effects of using the existing means of having a comfortable life by using modern technological advancement.

The computer is one of the technological advancements that make life easy and comfortable. Man relies so much on this machine to the point that he has to upgrade his knowledge to adopt himself to rapid changes that take place in the society because of this invention.

In the educational setting, computers are of great help to every institution that seeks higher standard. In every level of schooling, computer subject is integrated in the curriculum being followed. In line with this reality, students are  very much aware of this technology.

One of the applications of computer technology is the cyber game or computer game being introduced for the pleasure of teenagers.

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Because these computer games seem to be present in established different business establishments, especially the malls, students who get hooked on the hobby encounter many problems with their studies. In relation to this, this research was conceived to find out why students play computer games even during class hours and assess the effect of playing these.

Statement of the Problem:

This study is an attempt to find out the effects of playing computer games on students.

Specifically, this study will seek to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1age,

1.2 Gender,

1.3 family income,

1.4 marriage status of parents, and

1.5 guardianship?

  1. What are the different computer games played by the students and to what extent do they play these?
  2. Why do students play computer games on and off class hours?
  3. As evaluated by the students, how are they affected by playing computer games?

2. Significance of the Study

It is believed that this study will benefit educators, parents, as well as school administrators in designing programs that will help students make use of their potentials in the field of computers.

Educators and teachers will benefit from this study through the insight they will gain on channeling the interests of students from playing computer games towards well-motivated classroom activities.

Parents will also benefit from this study through understanding that parental guidance and caring are what children needs so much especially during these times when computer game technology compete too much with school and family life. Knowing the interests of children will be of great value for it gives ideas on what approach could be made in dealing with the problems of children.

Other researchers may gain important insight on other possible areas of research along computer gaming.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will focus only on high school students of New Era University who are identified as frequent players of computer games. Frequent players were students who play computer games every week with a minimum of one playing day per week regardless of time duration.

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I.                    Review of Related Literature

Computers: The Revolution Is On. People are in the midst of a technological revolution that is changing their way of life. The cornerstone of this revolution, the computer, is transforming the way people communicate, do business, and learn (Long, 1993).

Before the ‘80s, the computer was primarily a business machine provided by companies like IBM, NEC, and Xerox, to name a few. It functions as an electronic equipment that calculates mathematical equations for accounting, saving paper for compiling various back-breaking databases, and offered extensive word processing that made effortless secretarial work.

When the Apple II arrived, things were starting to get different. Suddenly, an individual can bring the computer home, and plug it to an existing color television. It will perform the regular computer tasks as its original purpose. And most importantly, people using this over – sophisticated typewriter can actually play digital games with it (Garcia, J, 2000).

While digital games in computers started out as nerve-relaxing games that took off one’s mind from work, innovations and new creation concepts in computer games produced games never before seen and played – interactive and connected into networks that allowed people to play simultaneously using different computer terminals. But the contents of these games usually involve shooting and bloody killing and adults have become greatly concerned over the games’ effects on children.

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Some computer games supporters attribute the criticisms to age discrimination. They believe that basically, that attacks on the video gaming industry are nothing more than a dressed up version of age discrimination that has reined throughout history. Most computer games are patronized by teenagers and young adults. Most violent incidents are committed by people of all ages around the world. When the Columbine shooting took place one of the first things the media looked into was the killer’s computer, where the software Doom had been installed. CNN and other media outlets salivated at that report for weeks. In another case, when a 16-year-old male from Hong Kong jumped 24 floors to his death before the results of a public examination were released, the first place the police looked through was the boy’s computer to look for violent video games and other gaming-related-media. In the end, the police seized his ICQ and email records (http://www.cscentral.com/ 2001).

Computer game players believe that playing has beneficial effects. One documentary presentation quoted the views and narration of players of computer games. They said that in playing computer games, one learns lessons like that there is a survival of the fittest (“matira ang matibay”). Playing gives good avenues for making friends. It teaches one to  do careful planning. “Masarap pag-usapan lalo na kapag magaling ang kalaro.” It helps develop concentration of mental and physical faculties. “Pagbubuhusan ng sama ng loob”. It gives you a good feeling: a stress reliever.

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For teen-agers, those characters found in the games who were good were considered as their imaginary friends. For kids, characters were reality.

The lure of computer or cyber games is very strong on different age brackets. Knowing these, parents have many times reminded computer game establishments on Quezon City Ordinance No. SP – 572 S – 97 they may be violating when they allow students to play during school hours (Taa, 2001).

II. Methodology

This study utilized the descriptive method of research. A survey questionnaire which was pre-tested and validated by experts was used to obtain data. The questionnaire was written in Filipino for easier comprehension of the questions being asked. Interviews were also used.

The respondents were 30 high school students of New Era University chosen through purposive sampling. Prior to the identification of respondents, a list of students who were reported by concerned authorities as having been caught playing computer games in different computer centers in the vicinity during school hours was requested by the researcher from the Office of the Committee on Student Discipline and Evaluation (CSDE).

Students who were identified as frequent players of computer games were approached by the researcher and were given a questionnaire. Interview was personally conducted by the researcher.

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III.                Presentation, Analysis and interpretation of Data

This section summarizes the collected data and presents results of the data analysis. This also includes explanations, implications, and applications of findings. The first part of this section gives us the information about the demographic profiles of the respondents, namely, their age, year level, gender, family income, marriage status of the parents, and guardianship. The second section presents the different types of computer games played by the respondent students and the discussion of the extent of playing computer games. Reasons and effects of playing computer games were discussed also in this section.

Table 1

N=30

Age of Respondents

Age

Number of Respondents

Percent

18

1

3.33

17

1

3.33

16

8

26.67

15

11

36.67

14

5

16.67

13

4

13.33

Table 1 presents the number of respondents with their age. It shows that majority or 11 of the respondents aged 15 years old, followed by 16 years old with 8 respondents. Five respondents aged 14 years old and 4 respondents aged 13 years old. Seventeen and 18 years old share 1 respondent each.

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This information suggests that most computer player are on their mid-teen and may be approximated as high school students in their third or fourth year. This should not be surprising considering that this age group is characterized by a strong sense of competitiveness with their peers and they would show off whatever skill they have. Being in the last years in high school, they have outgrown their timidity of the first school years, and now feel up to discovering more outside the school.

Table 2

N=30

Distribution of Respondents by Year Level

Year Level

Number of Respondents

Percent

Fourth Year

8

26.67

Third Year

14

46.67

Second Year

4

13.33

First Year

4

13.33

Table 2 presents the distribution of respondents by year level. Most of the respondents were third year students with 14 respondents, followed by fourth year with 8 respondents. Second year and first year share the same number of respondents with 4 respondents each.

That the biggest number can be found in the third year may be explained by the observation that third years are no longer newcomers in the school who are yet feeling their way in high school. They are neither graduating students whose concern is to pass all their subjects and graduate.

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While eight of the respondents are in their fourth year, the number is only second to the third years. Fourth year students are probably tempted to play counter strike because they find it a good way to kill time and boredom as mentioned during the interview.

Table 3

N=30

Gender

Gender

Number of Respondents

Percent

Male

25

83.33

Female

5

16.67

Table 3 presents the gender of the respondents. Majority of the respondents were males with 25 respondents. Five respondents were female.

Computer stations still appear to be a men’s world because of the crowded and dense set-up. Besides the game itself seem like masculine game which include shooting and killing.

Table 4

N=30

Respondents’ Family Income

Income Bracket

Number of Respondents

Percent

P41,000.00 – above

3

10.00

P31,000.00 – P40,000.00

5

16.67

P21,000.00 – P30,000.00

4

13.33

P11,000.00 – P20,000.00

8

26.67

Below P10,000.00

10

33.33

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Table 4 presents the family income of the respondents. Through careful analysis of the data presented, respondents’ income is varied ranging from family with minimum income to higher income bracket. This implies that family income is not a determining factor why students are playing computer games. Rich or poor, students are enticed to play computer games.

Table 5

N=30

Marriage Status of Parents

Marriage Status

Number of Respondents

Percent

Intact Family

26

86.67

Separated Parent

3

10.00

Widower

1

3.33

Table 5 presents the marriage status of the respondents’ parents. Twenty six of the respondents have intact families. This means that both parents are living together. There were 3 with separated parents in which both parents have their separate families, 2 of which stay with their grandparent, 1 live with his father. One with a widowed father but with stepmother.

The data presented shows that the students who frequently play computer games in game shops do not come from broken families but normal intact families. This points out that the keen interest on computer games have nothing to do with coming from broken families.

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Table 6

N=30

Guardianship of Respondents

Guardianship

Number of Respondents

Percent

Both Parents

24

80.00

One Parent

2

6.67

Other Relative

4

13.33

Table 6 presents the guardianship of the students. Guardianship refers to person or persons who take responsibility in looking after the student. Twenty- four of the respondents had both parents as guardians. Two respondents had only one parent as the guardian. One had his father as guardian and another had his mother. There were 4 respondents whose guardian were their relatives: their grandparents or their aunt. The two who were living with their grandparents have separated parents and the other two who lived with their aunts had parents who were both working abroad.

Table 7

N=30

Ordinal Position in the Family

Ordinal Position

Number of Respondents

Percent

First born

9

30.00

Second born

5

16.67

Third born

2

6.67

Last born

12

40.00

Only child

2

6.67

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Majority of the respondents were “bunso” or last born among family members. This is followed by respondents who are first born or “panganay”. Five respondents are second- born in the family. Third born and only child have 2 respondents each.

That the last born and first born comprise the biggest percentage of the computer game players maybe due to the observation that last born and first born are usually given more favors by their parents in terms of money and forgiveness when they commit misdemeanors. Especially in the Philippine context, first born (panganay) and last born (bunso) are usually the favorite of parents.

Table 8

Preferred Computer Games Played

Computer Games

Number of Respondents

Rank

Counter Strike

27

1

Star Craft

7

2

Red Alert

5

3

Diablo

4

4.5

Others

4

4.5

Table 8 presents the computer games preferred by the students. Majority of the students played Counter Strike, followed by Star Craft, Red Alert and Diablo. The others mentioned in the data were, NBA Live, Max Payne, and Play Station. During the research project, Counter Strike was indeed the most popular computer game. Some computer shops even named their shops after the famous games.

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Table 9

Frequency of Playing Computer Games by the Respondents

Frequency of Playing

Number of Respondents

Rank

Once a week

18

1

Three times a week

2

3.5

Four times a week

2

3.5

Five times a week

8

2

As to the frequency of playing computer games, majority of the respondents played once a week, followed by these who played daily, and others with 3 to 4 times of playing in a week. There were students who played computer games during Saturdays and Sundays but  most played a weekdays during which their classmates and friends are available and money playing from their allowance could be used.

In the question “Gaano ka na katagal sa paglalaro ng paborito mong computer games?”, majority has been playing computer games for more than a year. Many of the respondents have started playing computer games when they were still in their lower years.

Table 10

Time Used in Playing Computer Games

Number of Hour Spent Per Play

Number of Respondents

Rank

One hour

6

2

Two hours

15

1

Three hours

3

4

Four hours

3

4

Five hours – up

3

4

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In computer games, the play is the extra game interval from beginning to end. A play may run from a few minutes to several hours depending on how long it takes before player defeats his opponents or get defeated

It was found out that most of the respondents spent 2 hours of playing time. Six respondents played a minimum of one hour per play. There were 3 respondents who played 3 hours per play.  There were 3 who played four hours per play and 3 also who played five hours and more per play. This data is per game session and not per day or week.

Table 11

Playing Schedule

Time of Playing

Number of Respondents

Rank

Morning

4

3

Afternoon

23

1

Night

10

2

Whole day

3

4

“Ano oras kadalasan ang paglalaro mo?” Majority of the respondents played in the afternoon while 10 respondents played at night.  There are also respondents who played in the morning, and some who played the day. These are students who no longer attended their class. The data in Table 11 shows multiple answers from the respondents due to the fact that some students played at different time of the day, depending upon availability of playmates and funds.

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The favorite computer center where majority of the respondents played was the Peralta Computer Centers in Tandang Sora, Quezon City. This computer center has some 10 various computer game shops that were airconditioned. Other students went farther to SM City and Ever Gotesco, both in Quezon City and just a few minutes away from New Era University.

Table 12

Reasons for Playing Computer Games

Reasons

Frequency of Response

Rank

Masaya ako kapag naglalaro

20

1

Niyaya ako ng aking kalaro

14

2

Hindi ko mapigilan ang aking sarili

7

3

Tinatamad akong mag-aral

6

4

Ayaw ko sa guro

4

5

Nakakaantok sa klase

3

6

Respondent students play computer games on and off class hours for various reasons. The researcher found out that most of them played during class hours primarily because they were happy when playing the game. The second reason was that they were invited by their playmates to join them in playing (niyaya ako ng aking kalaro). There were also students who could not control themselves from playing and so they played the games. The researcher further

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found out that students play computer games for the following reasons: they felt lazy towards their studies, they didn’t like their teachers, and they felt sleepy during classes. The students were allowed to have multiple responses to this question.

These data reveal that computer games have become one of school’s stiff competitor. Schools have appeared dull and uninteresting to some students who succumbed to the much more fascinating features and rewards of playing computer games. Students who dislike their teachers for some reason would rather turn to user-friendly computer.

Table 13

Reasons for Not Attending Classes

Reasons

Frequency of Response

Rank

Ayaw ko sa subject na pinag-aralan.

8

1

Sobra ang aking baon.

5

2

Galit ako sa aking magulang.

3

3

Kulang ako sa libro at gamit.

2

4

Kulang ako sa baon.

1

5.5

Alam kong hindi na ako papasa kahit pumasok ako.

1

5.5

The researcher found out that there were many computer gamers who didn’t like a particular subject being studied so they would escape and go to computer stations to play. The next in rank is the reason that because they had a surplus of allowance, they were tempted to forget about their classes altogether and play computer games. Money gave them the opportunity to play.

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There were three respondents who were angry at their parents so they didn’t attend classes and instead played computer games as a form of rebellion against their parents. One of the respondents felt anger toward his father because when his father become a widower, his father had a relationship with their housemaid who later became his stepmother. The boy could not accept this situation. As a form of rebellious attitude, he stopped attending his class and instead went to computer station to play the whole day. He did this for almost two months. Another case of rebellious attitude was found in the case of one of the respondents whose mother was working abroad, being already separated from his father. He was entrusted to his grandmother who was not receptive or sensitive to his needs and feelings. He stopped attending classes because he was not interested anymore, feeling that his mother didn’t love him. (“Hindi ko kase naramdaman na mahal niya ako dahil iniwan niya ako sa lola ko mula ng ako ay bata pa. Binibigyan niya ako ng pera panggastos ko pero hindi sapat yun, kaya galit ako sa kanya”)

.

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Table 14

Effects of Playing Computer Games On Players

Effects

Frequency

Rank

Masaya ako dahil mahusay ako sa computer games.

18

1

Lalong nadagdagan ang tiwala ko sa aking sarili.

15

2.5

Naging masayahin ako.

15

2.5

Bumaba ang grades ko.

12

4.5

Naging matipid ako sa pagkain at iba pang bagay.

12

4.5

Hindi ako nakakagawa ng assignment.

10

6

Lalo ako naging matalino.

7

7

Hindi ako nakakasagot sa klase.

6

8

Naging mahina ang loob ko.

5

9

Pumapayat ako.

3

10.5

Nagsisinungaling ako.

3

10.5

Kumukuha ako ng hindi ko pera o gamit.

2

12

Naging matapang.

1

15

Hindi nakakausap ang magulang.

1

15

Naging sikat.

1

15

Nagkaroon ng maraming kaibigan

1

15

Tumaas ang grades

1

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The student-respondent also learned lessons in playing computer games. Most of them learn patience when they lost in the game (“magpasensya kapag natalo”). Some says that they learn to shoot, kill and even tell a lie. Many of the respondents developed self confidence and strong feelings to face obstacles and problems.

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Psychologically, playing computer games has bearing to the development of personality of adolescent who were the respondents of this study. If a student always win in the game, strong personality was developed but if the student losses, weak or inferior personality may develop. Whichever the result to student, the school plays an important role in this case.

The researcher found out that playing computer games affect the students’ entire personality. It encompasses personal satisfaction or realization of capabilities, academic endeavor, and socialization process.

The students’ evaluation of the effects of playing computer games on them may be categorized as to the following:

  1. Personal satisfaction and realization of capabilities. Majority of the respondents said that they were happy when they realized that they were good in playing computer games (‘masaya ako dahil mahusay ako sa computer game”). It also helped them develop their self-confidence (“lalong nadagdagan ang tiwala ko sa aking sarili”); they became frugal or learned to save for playing game money, (“naging matipid ako sa pagkain at iba pang bagay”) or the value of sacrifice for something important; some became braver (“naging matapang”) and many  became happy persons (“naging masayahin”). This finding suggests that one of the lure of computer games is that it allows them to feel competent and successful which may be something that their classes don’t give them.

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Being good, finally, at least at computer games, feeds their self-esteem

and earns them respect. Thus computer games become very rewarding.

  1. On the academic aspect, respondents were aware that they get low grades because of playing computer games, they were not able to work on their assignments and projects because they had no more time to do so. During class discussions, recitations, and tests, many of them  could not answer questions because they did not review nor study their lessons. As the result of these factors, many of the respondents failed in some of their subjects. However, there were 2 respondents who said that their grades improved when they started playing computer games and they became brighter.
  2. 3. Regarding relationships with family members and friends, there were some respondents who talked about negative relationships with their parents. Their answers were, naging sinungaling ako sa aking mga magulang at teacher, hindi ko nakakausap ang aking magulang dahil natatakot ako, natutong manguha ng hindi ko pera/gamit. On the positive side: nagiging sikat,nagiging palakaibigan at nagkaroon ng maraming kaibigan.

The researcher found out that playing computer games could enhance or help develop wholesome personal qualities of students. But academically, playing computer games can also greatly affect the performance of students in almost all aspects of his responsibility as a student.

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IV.               Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

Summary

This study intended to find out the profile of the students who are frequent players of computer games, the different computer games they play, their reasons for frequently playing, and how computer games affect them.

Based on the findings of the study, majority of the players were 15 year-old and they belong to the third year level of New Era University High School. There were more males than females. Income bracket of the family ranged below 10,000.00 pesos to above 41,000.00 pesos. Majority of the respondents were last-born, had intact families, and their parents stand as their guardians..

Counter strike was the favorite computer game played by majority of the respondents. Majority of the students played once a week and spent two hours per play. They usually played in the afternoon and the favorite place for playing was Peralta Computer Centers in Tandang Sora, Quezon City.

Students played computer games because of personal satisfaction. They felt happy when playing their favorite game. Others play because they were influenced by their peers. There were also those who could not control themselves against the lure of the game and some play because of lack of motivation towards their studies. There were also students who didn’t attend

class and instead went to computer centers and play because they didn’t like the

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subject and the teacher. Majority of the respondents were aware that their academic performance will be affected by playing computer games.

The effects of playing computers could be classified as to personal, academic and social in nature. Personally, computer gamers feel satisfaction because they are good at playing computer games. Playing computer games made them happy because they realized that they have skills for it. Their self-confidence was enhanced, according to the students.

Students were aware that they would get failing grades as a result of their frequent play. Many of them were not able to work on their assignments and projects. They could not even participate in class discussions because they were not prepared. There were few who said that they became bright.

In the social aspects, this study found out that the students made more friends, and were always happy when they were in the company of other players. Some became frugal and learned to save. They became famous especially if they were good players. Some became dishonest and learned to steal material things and money.

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Conclusion

Computer games are most appealing to adolescents and high school students, even these were from intact families, of varying socio-economic status.

Counter-strike, currently the most popular computer game is played at different frequencies by students in Peralta Computer Centers, which is 1.5 kilometers away from New Era University.

There are many reasons that students get away from classes to play computer gamer, instead. Foremost of these is the happiness and satisfaction they feel when playing. This matches well with the students’ dislike for some subjects that they prefer not to attend.

Playing computer games have many effects on students and the negative effects outweigh the positive results. The positive effects have to do with the gratification students feel or they meet friends and gain some recognition for succeeding in the games, and the negative ones include problems and failures in scholastic activities, and stealing.

23

Recommendations

After assessing the factors and effects of computer games in the life of high school students, the researcher came up with the following recommendations:

  1. Redirection and Refocusing Program should be designed to re-channel the interest of high school students from playing computer games to worthwhile school activities with resemblance to their skills and interest.
  2. Close monitoring of students’ progress by parents, teachers, guidance counselors, and especially the class advisers.
  3. Further enhancement of club activities that suits the interests of the students.
  4. Forge agreements with the establishments identified as frequent hub of student players that they should not allow students to play during class hours.
  5. Coordinate with the community officials to implement the ordinance enacted by Quezon City Council on November 24, 1997. (Refer to appendices for the full text of the ordinance)
  6. Further study on computer gaming using other variables and approaches be conducted.

24

V.                 Bibliography

Garcia, J. (2000). The Amazing PC. E-magazine Online p.38.

Long, L. et. al. (1993). Computers: The Revolution is on. Prentice Hall Inc. , New Jersey, U.S.A.

More Violence in Games Coverage. http://www.cscentral.com

What Makes a Good Counter Strike Player. http://www.counterstrike.co

Brigada Siete, GMA Channel 7, GMA Media Center, Diliman, Quezon City. November, 2001.

Taa, lilibeth F. Research Director, New Era University. Private interview with Ronnie. G. Cainglet, November, 2001.

25

VI.               Appendices

Appendix A

Questionnaire

Name: (Optional) _________________________   Year Level:__________

Age: _______        Gender: ___ Male   ____Female

Total Monthly Family Income: ____P 10,000.00 and below

____P 11,000.00 – P20,000.00

____P 21,000.00  – P30,000.00

____P 31,000.00 -  P40,000.00

____P 41,000.00  and above

Panuto:

Ang “survey” na ito ay naglalayong malaman ang mga bagay-bagay na may kaugnayan sa iyong  paglalaro ng iba’t-ibang uri ng “computer games”. Kung maaari  ay sagutan ng boung katapatan ang bawat pangungusap na sa palagay mo ay naghahayag ng katotohanan. Makakaasa ka na ang mga impormasyon na iyong ibibigay ay tatratuhing “confidential”.

  1. Sa kasalukuyan, ako ay namumuhay:

____kasama ang mga magulang

____kasama ang tatay ko lamang

____kasama ang nanay ko lamang

____guardian lamang ang kasama

____kasama ay kaibigan/kapitbahay

  1. Sa aming magkakapatid ako ay :

____panganay

____pangalawa mula sa panganay

____pangatlo mula sa panganay

____bunso

____ iba pa, pakisulat: __________________

  1. Ang pangunahing “computer game” na aking nilalaro ay:

____counter strike

____Diablo

____star craft

____red alert

____ iba pa, pakisulat: ________________

Lagyan ng check ang sagot na totoo sa inyo.

  1. Ako ay naglalaro ng computer games kahit may pasok dahil:

Totoo sa akin            di totoo sa akin

tinatamad akong mag-aral                            ______                      _______

ayaw ko sa guro                                              ______                      _______

masaya ako kapag naglalaro                         ______                      _______

nakakaantok sa klase                                      ______                      _______

di ko mapigilan ang aking sarili                   ______                      _______

niyaya ako ng aking kalaro                           ______                       _______

  1. Ayaw kong pumasok dahil:

____kulang ako sa libro ogamit

____sobra ang aking baon

____galit ako sa aking magulang

____alam kong di na ako papasa kahit pumasok ako

____ayaw ko sa subject na pinag-aaralan

  1. Alam kong kapag ako ay naglalaro ng computer games sa panahong may klase:

____ang grades ko ay naaapektuhan

____ mapapagalitan ako ng guro

____magagalit sa akin ang mga magulang ko, kung malalaman nila

iba pa: __________________

  1. Ang mga bagay na natutunan ko sa paglalaro ng computer games ay:

____pumatay

____bumaril

____magnakaw

____magsugal

____magsinungaling

____magpasensya pag natatalo

iba pa: ___________________

  1. Sa paglalaro ko ng computer games:

_____lalong tumatag ang loob ko

_____lalong nanghina ang loob ko

_____walang pagbabago sa kakayahan ko

  1. Gaano ka na katagal sa paglalaro ng paborito mong computer games?

____ buwan pa lang

____kulang sa isang taon

____mga isang taon

____sobra na sa isang taon

iba pa: ____________________

10. Gaano ka kadalas maglaro ng computer games?

____araw-araw

____minsan sa isang lingo

iba pa, ____________________

11. Ilang oras ang ginugugol mo sa paglalaro ng computer games?

____isang oras

____dalawang oras

____tatlong oras

____apat na oras

____limang oras o higit pa

____iba pa, pakisulat _______________

12. Anong oras kadalasan ang paglalaro mo?

____umaga

____tanghali

____hapon

____gabi

____buong araw

13. May epekto ba sa iyo ang paglalaro ng computer games?  ­­­­__mayroon       ___wala

Kung mayroon lagyan ng check ang kaukulang sagot:

____masaya ako dahil mahusay ako sa computer games

____lalong nadagdagan ang tiwala ko sa aking sarili

____lalo ako naging matalino

____naging mahina ang loob ko

____hindi ako nakakasagot sa klase

____bumaba ang grades ko

____hindi ako nakakagawa ng assignment

____pumapayat ako

____lumulusog ako

____naging masayahin ako

____nagsisinungaling ako

____kumukuha ako ng hindi ko pera

____naging matipid ako sa pagkain at iba pang bagay

____iba pa, pakisulat: ___________________________________

Maraming salamat

Appendix B

Ordinance No. SP – 572 S-97

QUEZON CITY CHILD AND YOUTH WELFARE ORDINANCE

ARTICLE V

REGULATORY  PROVISIONS ON LEISURE AND CULTURAL ACTIVITIES

CHAPTER 1: REGULATING THE PLAYING/SELLING/DISTRIBUTION OF VIDEO GAMES, FAMILY COMPUTERS AND OTHER  SIMILAR ITEMS/MACHINES FOUND IN AMUSEMENT CENTERS, MALLS, AND OTHER SIMILAR ESTABLISHMENTS

Section 18. The operation of any kind of video machine, arcade, family/personal computer used for games and other similar contraption within the radius of five hundred (500) meters from any educational or religious institution is prohibited.

Section 19. all minors, particularly school children, are totally restricted to play the above mentioned devices found in amusement centers, malls and other similar establishments located in Quezon City, during school hours from 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M., Mondays to Fridays. Operators and owners of these machines are enjoined to strictly implement this prohibition.

Section 20. Minors may be allowed to play video-game machines and other  similar equipment at the above mentioned establishments only during weekends (Saturdays and Sundays) from 8:00 A.M. to 8:00 P.M., and on weekdays between 5:00 P.M. to 8:00 P.M. subject to the limitations/conditions herein provided.

Section 21. a) Video games shall be categorized into:

    1. Puzzle
    2. Sports
    3. Fighting/combat
    4. Action
    5. Racing
    6. Adventure
    7. Strategy
    8. Simulator
    9. Space Combat

b) Video games shall be rated into:

(1) KF – Kid-friendly (non-violent)

(2) V – Violent

(3) UV – Ultra-violent

Section 22. Children below 14 years of age may play video games rated as non-violent games under the category of sports, adventure, racing, flight simulator, and the likes, during the hours/days allowed under this ordinance.

Section 23. Children 15-18 years of age may play video games rated as less violent under the category of sports, action, racing, adventure, strategy, flight simulator and the likes during the hours/days allowed under this ordinance.

Section 24. Ultra-violent games defined those games that reveal on audio or video graphics, profanity, bestiality and brutality such as the throwing of invectives, slandering, the breaking of limbs, mutilation or dismemberment, spewing of blood, blasting of limb/body with high powered guns or equipment.

Section 25. Ultra-violent games, pornographic animation, nudity, video carreras and other similar form which corrupt the child’s intellectual, spiritual, social and emotional growth are prohibited from being operated, sold or distributed.

Section26. The video regulatory board as may be created under the Business Permit and Licensing Office, monitor and screen all video games and animation and to rate or categorize a particular game or video fall, and to implement the provisions of Article V, Chapter 1, of this ordinance.

Section 27. PENAL PROVISION – Violation of any of the provision of this Ordinance by any operator, owner, seller, or distributor of video games and machines shall be penalized with the following:

First offense: Fine of Two Thousand Pesos (P2,000.00) or an imprisonment of  not more than four (4) months at the discretion of the Court.

Second offense: Fine of Three Thousand Pesos (P3,000.00) with an imprisonment of  not more than six (6) months, at the discretion of the Court.

Third offense: Fine of Five Thousand Pesos (P5,000.00) with an imprisonment of not more that twelve (12) months, at the discretion of the Court, including the confiscation/destruction of video machines and other related paraphernalias/materials and the automatic cancellation/revocation of business permits or licenses. However, in the case of a corporation, partnership or association, the penalty shall be imposed upon the officials responsible for such violation.

This Ordinance was enacted on October 21, 1997 by the Quezon City Council and was signed by Mayor Ismael A. Mathay JR. on November 24, 1997.

Global Economic Crisis: An Insight

Filed under: Research Papers @ 1:03 am and

Global Economic Crisis: An Insight

Ms. Candy Abigail Areja

Ms. Naiadin de Guzman

Mr. Jonathan Rey Diva

Ms. Anna Dominique Lapira

Mr. John Jacob Mendoza

Mr. Chadnezar Quisquino

A Research Paper Submitted to the

New Era University Research Center

February 2009

Chapter I


Background of the Study

The global economic crisis that started in America had a wide and a destructive effect to the economy of the other country. This resulted to recession, to bankruptcy, to insolvency, to the failure of some companies and to poverty.  But then, what can our country can do to stop this crisis in affecting our country if the United States alone, which is considered the most powerful country in the world, cannot do something to prevent the effect of the global economic recession which started in their country.

Recession is the rapid and massive unemployment. And if this continues to happen, the time will come that there are more Filipino people who are unemployed than the employed ones, and so, what will happen to those Filipinos who just finish their education and just graduated? And imagine these Filipinos will graduate each year to help their family and our country. But then because of the crisis, will they acquire jobs that suits to the course they studied? Will they get a job? Can they support their family and raise our economy?

But still there is a light in the darkness, there is a way for our country men to find jobs, but not related to their courses that they finished and in which the government cannot implement taxes, and this is to be involved in the underground economy.  In relation to this, we conducted a research on how great the crisis affects people and the people’s daily living with respect to their educational backgrounds and other personal profiles.

Statement of the Problem

This study is an attempt to find out how the global economic crisis affects people.

Specifically, this study will seek to answer the following questions:

  1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Highest degree attained,

1.2 Age,

1.3 Gender,

1.4 Total Monthly Income,

1.5 Living Companion,

1.Ordinal Position in the Family, and

1.7 Who earns a living in the family?

  1. How often the crisis affects them in terms of:

Price increases,

Fare increases,

Decrease in demand of employees,

Bankruptcy of companies,

Wage decreases,

Utility bills increase,

Additional taxes on goods, and

The effect of the crisis in different countries.

Significance of the Study

It is believed that this study will benefit our family, students, our countrymen and the society through informing them what are the advantages and disadvantages of a country having the presence of the underground economy and if it can be the people’ s alternative especially during this time of crisis.

Different families will benefit from our study through the insight of having an economy without the presence, removing and paying of taxes from their monthly income.

Different students will benefit also from this study through informing them that there can be a lot of jobs available for them in the future and any time they want to work but these jobs doesn’t suit to their courses and to the field of study they take and also these jobs may take their lives into risk.

To our countrymen wherein there can be a lot of jobs for them to acquire in which there is no reduction of government taxes from their income but then they will have no permanent jobs where they can earn money for they everyday living.

And to our society in which our countrymen have lots of jobs for them to take and they will not anymore be a liability of our country but there is no assurance if they can help our economy and our country to rise.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

This study will focus on the different students, families and businessmen/woman of our country who are suffering, experiencing and affecting from the global economic crisis.

This study will inform them if the involvement of someone in the underground economy will be an alternative way for them to survive during this time of crisis.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

The global financial crisis of 2008–2009 is an ongoing major financial crisis. It became prominently visible in September 2008 with the failure, merger, or conservatorship of several large United States-based financial firms. The underlying causes leading to the crisis had been reported in business journals for many months before September, with commentary about the financial stability of leading U.S. and European investment banks, insurance firms and mortgage banks consequent to the subprime mortgage crisis.

Beginning with failures of large financial institutions in the United States, it rapidly evolved into a global credit crisis, deflation and sharp reductions in shipping resulting in a number of European bank failures and declines in various stock indexes, and large reductions in the market value of equities (stock) and commodities worldwide. The credit crisis was exacerbated by Section 128 of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 which allowed the Federal Reserve System (Fed) to pay interest on excess reserve requirement balances held on deposit from banks, removing the longstanding incentive for banks to extend credit instead of hoard cash on deposit with the Fed. The crisis led to a liquidity problem and the de-leveraging of financial institutions especially in the United States and Europe, which further accelerated the liquidity crisis, and a decrease in international shipping and commerce. World political leaders and national ministers of finance and central bank directors have coordinated their efforts to reduce fears but the crisis is ongoing and continues to change, evolving at the close of October into a currency crisis with investors transferring vast capital resources into stronger currencies such as the yen, the dollar and the Swiss franc, leading many emergent economies to seek aid from the International Monetary Fund. The crisis was triggered by the subprime mortgage crisis and is an acute phase of the financial crisis of 2007–2009. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_financial_crisis_of_2008%E2%80%932009)

Global Economic Crisis To Become More Intense This Year: Global Economic Crisis is really a big problem and if this continues, what will happen to us? Many companies big or small, local or international have started to reduce the number of their employees. Recession here, there and everywhere has started and many people have lost their jobs. If this economic problem persists, many people will become jobless.

Investors either local or foreign were encouraged by the government to invest here in the Philippines. They were encouraged to put up or established a business here because the more business means the more jobs will be available for people.

This economic meltdown is really devastating. More and more companies are shutting down and declaring bankruptcy and resulted to the loss of hundreds of jobs for their employees. Without jobs, how can we help our families survive?

Money is indeed important to all. It is a necessity. Without money we can’t survive right? That’s why we have to work to earn it. But with economic dilemma like this then how can we go on with our lives?

Many companies like Philamlife have said that they will still continue to provide their customers and distributors with the highest level of service. They have assured that there will be no problem concerning about their funds and that they are financially sound or secured even if the mother company is AIG who has its own financial issues.

Customers/Investors should really not lose the trust and confidence they have built in with the company where they have invested their money. And as for the companies either big or small must reassure their customers/distributors/investors that they’re well-capitalized and have back-up plans to make sure that they can still continue to provide and meet their needs. (http://celestialmaiden.i.ph/blogs/celestialmaiden/?p=8, January 19,2009)

“There is a global economic crisis that is responsible for driving up the prices of food, fuel and rice in the Philippines and around the world. We are not in crisis here at home, but we are facing strong challenges. During these troubled times, the role of the government is to help insulate the Filipino people from these price shocks and economic pressures. “ – President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (http://www.op.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=332&Itemid=27)

Chapter III

Methodology

This study utilized the descriptive method of research. A survey questionnaire which was pre-tested and validated by experts was used to obtain data. The questionnaire was written in Filipino for easier comprehension of the questions being asked.

The respondents were 100 randomly selected citizens ranging from 15 years of age and up.

Chapter IV

Presentation, Analysis and interpretation of Data

This section summarizes the collected data and presents results of the data analysis. This also includes explanations, implications, and applications of findings. The first part of this section gives us the information about the demographic profiles of the respondents, namely, the highest degree attained, age, gender, family income, living companion, ordinal position in the family, and who earns a living in their family. The second section presents how often the crisis affects the respondents.

Table 1

N=81

Highest Degree Attained of Respondents

Highest Degree Attained

Number of Respondents

Percent

Elementary Graduate

0

0

High school Graduate

30

37.03

College Undergraduate

7

8.64

College Graduate

41

50.62

Vocational

3

3.7

Post Graduate

0

0

Table 1 presents the highest degree that the respondents have attained. Most of the respondents are college graduates having 50.62 in percentage and next to it are high school graduates with 37.03 percent. There are some college undergraduate respondents and vocational for the least respondents among them.

The information suggests that most of the respondents have already their Bachelor’s degree and probably have their jobs and they can already support a family.

Table 2

N=100

Age of Respondents

Age Bracket

Number of Respondents

Percent

15-25

44

44

26-35

30

30

36-45

17

17

46-55

9

9

56 and above

0

0

Table 2 presents the number of respondents with respect to their ages. It shows that majority are in the age bracket of 15-25 years old with 44 percent followed by 26-35, 36-45, and having 46-55 for the least.

With the information given, most of the respondents are in their pre-adulthood stage. Also, it shows that with that age bracket, respondents probably finished their secondary schooling and so they do know about economic situations for economics is taught in high school.

Table 3

N=100

Gender

Gender

Number of Respondents

Percent

Male

34

34

Female

66

66

Table 3 presents the gender of the respondents. Majority of the respondents are female with 66 percent while the remaining are male.

Table 4

N=90

Total Monthly Family Income of Respondents

Income Bracket

Number of Respondents

Percent

Below P10,000

26

28.89

P11,000-P20,000

27

30

P21,000-P30,000

11

12.22

P31,000-P40,000

5

5.56

P41,000 and above

21

23.33

Table 4 presents the family income of the respondents. Through careful analysis of the data presented, respondents’ income is varied ranging from family with minimum income to higher income bracket. As we can see, most of the respondents,that is 30 percent, belong to an average family having an income in the bracket of P11,000-P20,000.

Table 5

N=100

Living Companion of Respondents

Companion

Number of Respondents

Percent

Family

72

72

Father

3

3

Mother

2

2

Guardian

3

3

Friend/Neighbor

10

10

Table 5 presents the living companion of the respondents. Living companion means that they are the one who are the respondents’ accompaniment in their homes. This shows that most of the respondents are living with their family having 72 percent and next from that is living with a friend or a neighbor with 10 percent.

Table 6

N=100

Ordinal Position in the Family

Ordinal Position

Number of Respondents

Percent

First Born

27

27

Second Born

20

20

Third Born

17

17

Last Born

23

23

Others

13

13

Table 6 presents the ordinal position of the respondents in their families. Majority of the respondents are “panganay” or first born among the family members having 27 percent, and second to that is “bunso” or the last born with 23 percent. In the Philippine context, most of the “panganay” are the breadwinners of the family.

Table 7

N=100

The One Who Earns a Living in the Respondents’ Family

The One Who Earns a Living

Number of Respondents

Percent

Father

31

31

Mother

3

3

Both Parents

40

40

Sibling

13

13

Others

13

13

Table 7 presents who the one is earning a living for their family. Majority of the respondents,that is 40 percent, have their both parents earn money for the financial needs of the family. The dependence on the father is the next one with 9 percent difference to the first and the mother having the least.

Table 8

How Often the Crisis Affects the Respondents

Factual Events

Arithmetic Mean

Rank

Utility bills increase

4.05

1

Price Increases

3.9

2

Additional taxes on goods

3.77

3

Wage decreases

3.49

4

Fare Increase

3.46

5

Bankruptcy of companies

3.38

6

Decrease in demand of employees

3.25

7

The effect of the crisis in different countries

3.11

8

28.41/8 = 3.55

This last table presents the problems that the respondents’ are facing today in relation with global economic crisis. They are asked how often those problems do affect them and this table shows the ranking of each problem.

With the information given, the increase of utility bills greatly affects them with its rank of being the number one. A price increase is the next one. In relation to the price increase is the additional taxes imposed on those goods which makes it the third on the rank. Wage decrease is the fourth one and fare increase for the fifth. Bankruptcy of companies which leads to the demand of employees ranks sixth and seventh. Having the last rank, the effect of the crisis in different countries doesn’t affect that much to the respondents.

Chapter V

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

Summary

This study is intended to give us the information about the demographic profiles of the respondents, namely, the highest degree attained, age, gender, family income, living companion, ordinal position in the family, and who earns a living in their family.

Based on the findings and the research taken, college graduates are often and most affected by the global economic crisis that is experiencing by the world and our country, since college graduates have the opportunity and the will to acquire and get jobs to support their family and our country. People who aged 15-25 are most likely affected by this crisis since they are the one who are frequently working in their family. While females are most likely experiencing the burden of this crisis since they are often the breadwinners of their family. Those families who suffer the consequence of this crisis range their income from 10, 000 below to above 41, 000. And the people in which they are accompanied with are their family. While those who undergo through this crisis are the people who are first born in their family or the “panganay” and those who tried to raise their family and to meet their everyday needs are both parents of the family

The respondents of this study are most likely concern to the change in their monthly and quarterly bills in effect of the global economic crisis.

Conclusion

Global economic crisis affect not only United States and European countries but also our developing country which is the Philippines.

Filipino people are most affected by this crisis by means of the continuous increasing of bills that our country men paid each quarter and each month and the price increases of goods and necessities because of too many taxes imposed on them. This burden is mostly being conceded by our parents and by our eldest brother or sister in the family which is usually seen in the Philippine context.

And so, our country will experience the most devastating effect of this crisis by means of poverty and still, inequality.

Recommendations

After assessing the factors and the effects of the global economic crisis in the lives of the citizens, the researchers came up with the following recommendations:

  1. People need to be educated to only spend their money wisely on goods and services that are necessary, practical and morally good. Waste should be avoided when practical. There needs to be a focus on sharing, serving the community and helping people instead of desiring excess wealth.
  1. In countries where wages are above the world average it would be better to reduce costs instead of increasing wages, so that these countries can become more internationally competitive.
  1. Taxes should be abolished where they increase costs on essential goods and services or slow productivity. A solution would be debit tax, where the only tax charged is a very low tax on money withdrawals.
  1. We can break our addiction to fossil fuels, over-consumption, and the current economic model and create a more sustainable and desirable future that focuses on quality of life rather than merely quantity of consumption.
  1. Bailing out of the government to those people who suffer much in this crisis.
  1. Allotting funds for the availability of jobs here and abroad for those who are hoping to lift their life’s status instead of wasting the funds to unimportant matters.
  1. Impose programs in which nonworking Filipino men can benefit and a stimulus fund to help the poor.

10.Formulate a program whose objective is to help the citizens in coping with this global crisis.

11.Always prioritize our country men before other nationalities by means of thinking the consequences that might result from unsure treaty or agreements.

Chapter VI

Bibliography

Global financial crisis of 2008–2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_financial_crisis_of_2008%E2%80%932009

Global Economic Crisis To Become More Intense This Year. http://celestialmaiden.i.ph/blogs/celestialmaiden/?p=8

“There is a global economic crisis that is…“. http://www.op.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=332&Itemid=27

http://www.advantagein.com/politics/economiccrisis.pdf

http://www.theoildrum.com/node/4645

Chapter VII

Appendix

SURVEY

(Underground Economy)

Name: (Optional) _________________________

Highest degree attained:__________

Age: _______

Gender:  ___ Male   ____Female

Total Monthly Family Income: ____P 10,000.00 and below

____P 11,000.00 – P20,000.00

____P 21,000.00  – P30,000.00

____P 31,000.00 -  P40,000.00

____P 41,000.00  and above

  1. Sa kasalukuyan, ako ay namumuhay:

____kasama ang mga Pamilya

____kasama ang tatay ko lamang

____kasama ang nanay ko lamang

____guardian lamang ang kasama

____kasama ay kaibigan/kapitbahay

  1. Sa aming magkakapatid ako ay :

____panganay

____pangalawa mula sa panganay

____pangatlo mula sa panganay

____bunso

____ iba pa, pakisulat: __________________

  1. Sino ang naghahanap-buhay sa inyong pamilya:

____Ama

____Ina

____Parehong magulang

____Kapatid

____ iba pa: ________________

Panuto:

Ang “survey” na ito ay naglalayong malaman ang mga bagay-bagay na may kaugnayan sa iyong pagkaunawa sa lumalaganap na “Global Economic Crisis”. Kung maaari ay sagutan ng boung katapatan ang bawat katanungan kung paano nakakaapekto ang krisis sa iyo at sa iyong pamilya. Makakaasa ka na ang mga impormasyon na iyong ibibigay ay tatratuhing “confidential”.

1- hindi                                            4- madalas

2- bihira                                              5- lagi

3- paminsan-minsan

1

2

3

4

5

1. pagtaas ng presyo ng mga bilihin.
2. pagtaas ng singil sa pamasahe
3. pag-unti ng mga kinakailangang empleyado.
4. pagsasara ng mga kumpanya
5. pagbaba ng sweldo sa mga trabahador.
6. pag-taas ng singil sa kuryente, tubeg atbp.
7. pagdagdag ng buwis sa mga produkto
8. pagepekto ng krisis sa ibang bansa katulad ng amerika atbp.

Research Paper Writing Format

Filed under: Research Papers @ 12:52 am and

THESIS / RESEARCH PAPER WRITING FORMAT

Chapter I. Introduction

  1. Background of the Study

-         What is the identified research problem?

-         Why is there a need to do the study about the said problem? (Rationale)

  1. Statement of the Purpose

-         What are the general and specific objectives of the study?

  1. Significance of the Study

-         What contribution will the results of the study make to concerned individuals, administrators, agencies, service providers, clients, beneficiaries, general society, science, practice of profession and others?

  1. Scope and Limitations of the Study

-         Scope: Involves the boundaries in terms of time, samples, location, subjects or people involved and others.

-         Limitations: Include the constraints or weaknesses of the study which are beyond the control of the researcher.

Chapter II. Theoretical Framework

  1. Review of Related Literature and Studies

-         Includes synthesis of each selected literature or documented study to summarize and emphasize its relevance to the current research study.

-         Presented in topical form, irrespective of whether it is local or foreign; and not necessarily arranged in chronological or alphabetical order.

  1. Conceptual Framework

-         Drawn from the review of related literature and studies;

-         Clarifies the relationships between and among the major variables of the study;

-         Illustrates the research study further in conceptual paradigm.

  1. Hypotheses or Assumptions

-         Tentative formulations or explanations about the expected outcomes of the research study.

-         Presented in alternative form which could be tested using statistical tools.

  1. Definition of Terms and Variables

-         Some terms used in the research study are given either lexical or operational definition or both.

-         The variables being defined are arranged in alphabetical order.

Chapter III. Methodology

  1. Research Design

-         Brief description of the research methods to be used.

-         Includes a brief justification on why it is the best method for the present study.

  1. Research Locals

-         Brief description of the places where the participants or respondents are located or to be obtained.

  1. Samples and Sampling Techniques Used

-         Brief description or profile of the population or respondents involved in the research study.

-          Brief explanation of sampling size and how it was determined.

-         Specific techniques used in selecting the samples.

  1. Instrumentation

-         Description of instruments to be used, their contents and how they were developed and validated.

E. Procedure

-         Details of data collection and procedure used

-         Includes a time frame for the collection of data

-         Person responsible for the data collection and collation.

  1. Statistical Analysis of the Data

-         Statistical procedure or methods used in analyzing the research data and the reason for using such.

-         Data result should support and be in consonance with the objectives and hypotheses of the study

(Note): Chapters I – III are presented in the future tense when writing a thesis proposal. When they are re-written to mean that the study has already been completed, past tense is used.

IV. Results and Discussions (Presentation, Interpretation, and Analysis of Data)

  1. Results

-         Presented according to the objectives of the study; preferably in topical presentation style.

-         Includes plain reading and explanation of figures in tables and graphs.

-         Also includes important figures or diagrams related to the results of the study.

  1. Discussion

-         Topical presentation according to the results earlier presented.

-         Includes analysis and interpretation of the results.

-         May or may not duplicate the figures already mentioned in the section on Results.

-         Interprets data in a unified or holistic manner.

Chapter V. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations

  1. Summary

-         Synopsis of the research objectives, hypothesis, research methodology and findings.

  1. Conclusion

-         Brief statements about the generalizations inferred from the results.

-         Includes the theoretical and practical implications of the findings discussed.

  1. Recommendations

-         Includes a detailed description of the suggestions for future action based on the significance of the findings.

-         Includes also some recommendations for future research.

Additional Components:

  1. Bibliography or References– is the listing of references and other materials sited in the research study, arranged in alphabetical order with proper punctuation marks.

December 8, 2009

survey quetionnaire in Economics

Filed under: Uncategorized @ 2:32 am and

Survey Questionnaire in Economics

 

PHILIPPINE ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

(January, 2009 – November, 2009)

 

Respondent’s Personal Data:

 

Name (Optional): _____________________________  Age: ______ Gender: _________________

Civil Status: __________ Occupation: _____________________ Monthly Income: ____________

 

Note: This survey will try to assess the performance of our economy from January 2009 to November 2009. Kindly answer the questions with utmost honesty to obtain a valid and reliable data that could help us analyze the present condition of our economy under Arroyo’s administration. We assure you that the information you will be giving us will be treated with high degree of confidentiality, especially your personal data. The data you supplied us will only be used for crossed referencing purposes.

 

Thank you very much.

 

The researchers

 

Direction: Check the appropriate circle that correspond your perception of our economy for the past 11 months of the year.

 

1. What can you say about the economy of the Philippines from January, 2009 to November, 2009?

O – Better                    O – Same                     O – Worse                   O – Don’t Know

 

2. How was the income/ livelihood of your family from January, 2009 to November, 2009?

 

            O – Better                    O – Same                     O – Worse                   O – Don’t Know

 

3. What is the status of your family income compare to your needs?

      O – More                     O – Enough                  O – Not enough      O – Don’t Know

 

4. Are there jobs / opportunities in your community or place of residence?

       O – A lot                      O – Few                      O – None                     O – Don’t Know

 

5. How do you think the economy will fare/perform  in 2010

 O – Will improve          O – The same               O – Worsen              O – Don’t Know

 

6. How would you assess the performance of Arroyo Administration in the past 9 years?

            O – Very good             O – Average                O – Poor                      O – Don’t Know

 

7. Do you think the government can help improve your way of life in 2010?

            O – Yes                       O – No

 

8. What do you think is the best quality of a president/leader that could lead the country towards its development? (Please supply your answer) ______________________________________

July 12, 2009

U.N. warns of catastrophe as hungry people top 1B

Filed under: Uncategorized @ 8:06 am and

U.N. warns of catastrophe as hungry people top 1B

By: The Philippine Star (June 14, 2009)

 

 

Rome: High food prices have pushed another 105 million people into hunger in the first have of 2009, the head of the UN World Food Program (WFP) said on Friday, raising the total number of hungry people to over one billion.

 

Urging rich nations at a meeting of G8 development ministers not to cut back on aid, Josette Sheeran said the world faced a human catastrophe as more people struggle to eat a decent meal.

 

“This year we are clocking in on average four million new hungry people a week, urgently hungry.” Sheeran said.

 

“For the first six months of this year, 105 million people have been added,” she said, citing figures to be released by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) next week that will raise the total number of undernourished people to over one billion.”

 

In 2008, FAO said the world’s hungry numbered 963 million.

 

The WFP needs $6.4 billion this year for food aid, but donors’ contributions have fallen way behind that level – it   had around $1.5 billion at the end of the last week.

 

The agency says it has had to cut food aid rations and shut some operations in eastern Africa and North Korea because of the credit crunch.

 

“I know it seems a big figure, but if you compare it with the global stimulus package, it means that for less than one percent of that we could help meet the urgent human crisis that is unfolding, and that is just as essential to the stability of the world,” Sheeran said.

 

She said that despite a decline in most food prices from record peaks last year, they remained high in developing countries, while global food aid was at a 20-year low.

 

The financial crisis has made things worse, and in terms of staple food, people in poorer countries today can only afford about a third of what they could afford three years ago.

 

AID PROMISES

 

In a statement after a two-day meeting in Rome, G8 ministers reaffirmed their commitment to honor existing aid promises and the head of USAID said President Barack Obama wanted to double US aid funds to $52 billion by 2015.

 

“(This) sends a signal, I think, to the rest of the world that we cannot pull back on our support,” acting USAID administrator Alfonso Fulgham said.

 

But a report this week said the G8 was collectively off course in delivering on a pledge – made at a G8 summit in Scotland in 2005 – to more than double aid to Africa to $25 billion a year by 2010.

 

The report, by anti-poverty body ONE, was particularly critical of Italy, saying Rome was trailing far behind other nations in meeting aid targets and that undermined its credibility as G8 president this year.

 

“We have confirmed our commitment to find the resources this year to bring us back on track and fulfill our undertakings,” Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini told reporters on Friday, responding to the report.

 

ONE said Italy had delivered only three percent of the aid increase to Africa pledge by Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi four years ago.

CED Students

Filed under: Uncategorized @ 7:53 am and

The Syllabi for Assessment and Evaluation will be sent to you through an e mail. You have to be my contact so you have to send me an e mail to the address I gave you. The supplementary notes will also be sent to you once you send me your contact. Group 1, prepare for your presentation on Thursday and for a test of previous lessons about Principles of Learning and retionale of conducting assessment and evaluation. 

For 3rd Year Lessons

Filed under: Third Year Lessons @ 7:42 am and

Modyul sa Kasaysayan ng Daigdig

 

 

 

(Week # 1: Hunyo 15 – 19, 2009)

 

I. Paksa: Oryentasyon at Pagpapakilala

 

II. Aktibidad:

 

     Know me and My Partner

 

 

Week # 2 – 3 : Hunyo 23-Hulyo 3, 2009 (Walang pasok)

 

Week 4 – Hulyo 6 – 10, 2009

 

Panimulang Pag-aaral ng Kasaysayan

 

I. Mga Layunin:

 

  1. Nasasabi ang mga dahilan kung bakit dapat pag-aralan ang kasaysayan.
  2. Naibibigay ang pinagkuhanan ng mga historyador ng kaalaman (data) para sa kasaysayan.
  3. Nasusuri ang kaugnayan ng pag-aaral ng kasaysayan sa iba pang agham panlipunan.
  4. Nasusuri ang mahalagang katanungan na ukol sa sarili at sa lipunan, at ipakita kung papaano ito masasagot sa pamamagitan ng kaalaman ng kasaysayan.
  5. Nakikilala ang kahalagahan ng kasaysayan sa pag-unlad ng isang bansa.
  6. Nagiging huwarang mga mag-aaral sa lahat ng aspeto ng pamumuhay sa lipunang ginagalawan sa pamamagitan ng pagiging masunurin sa lahat ng tuntuning ipinapatupad ng paaralan at pamahalaan.

 

II. Mga Aktibidad

 

  1. Ilarawan Nyo, Huhulaan Namin
  2. Malayang Talakayan

 

III. Talakayan

 

  1. Ano ang kahulugan ng Kasaysayan?

 

Pinagmulan ng salitang kasaysayan – “historia” Latin – pinagmulan

 

History – His – Tao + Story = Kwento ng tao

 

2. Mga Teorya ng Kasaysayan

 

  1. Cyclical Theory – “History repeats itself”
  2. Marxist Theory -  Class struggle “Haves vs. have nots”
  3. Teorya ng walang humpay na pagbabago- continuous changes- walang humpay na pagbabagong nagaganap
  4. Creationist/Biblical/Christian Theory – everything happened was purposed by God and written in the Bible

3. Bakit mahalaga ang pag-aaral ng kasaysayan?

      a. Mapahalagahan ang nakaraan

      b. Maunawaan ang kasalukuyan

      c. Makalikha ng magandang hinaharap

 

4. Mga agham panlipunan na may kaugnayan sa pag-aaral ng kasaysayan

 

  1.  
    1. heograpiya
    2. sosyolohiya
    3. ekonomiks
    4. arkeolohiya
    5. antropolohiya
    6. pilosopiya
    7. agham pampulitika
    8. lingguistika
    9. sikolohiya
    10. paleontolohiya
    11. lohika
    12. etika
    13. heolohiya

 

  1. Paano ang kasaysayan makakatulong sa iyo bilang isang mag-aaral?

IV. Ebalwasyon : Maikling Pagsusulit

 

Week # 5 : Hulyo 13-17, 2009

 

I. Paksa: Ang Nagbabagong Heograpiya ng Daigdig

  

II. Mga Layunin:

 

  1. Naipamamalas ang pag-unawa sa kinalaman ng heograpiya sa pamumuhay ng mga tao ng sinaunang daigdig*
  2. Nasusuri ang teorya tungkol sa pinagmulan ng daigdig*
  3. Nailalarawan ang katangiang pisikal ng daigdig bilang tirahan ng tao*
  4. Naipaliiwanag ang kahalagahan ng heograpiya sa kasaysayan*
  5. Nasusuri ang kaugnayan ng heograpiya sa mga pandaigdigang penomena (global warming, el niño, la niña at iba pa.)*
  6. Magabayan ang mga mag-aaral na maunawaan ang kaniyang sarili at mundong ginagalawan.
  7. Maitanim sa kanila ang kaalaman, kasanyan, mabuting saloobin at pagpapahalaga sa mga bagay ng nakaraan upang sila’y maging mabubuti at responsableng mamayan.
  8. Maipakita ang pag-unawa sa kahalagahan ng heograpiya sa paraan ng pamumuhay ng mga sinaunang tao sa mundo.

 

III. Talakayan

 

1. Ano ang mga teorya hinggil sa pinagmulan ng daigdig?

 

a.       Ang teorya ng mga Sumerian at Griyego – Enlil –diyos ng hangin ng mga Sumeriano –tumibag ng bundok at ikinalat

Griyego – Thales – ang digdig ay lumulutang sa palanggana na may tubig

                Anaximander – nagsimula sa nag aapoy na bola na sumusuklob naman sa isang malamig at basing umbok… ang malmig na umbok sa kalaunan ay naging daigdig

 

b.      Ang teoryang Nebular –Immanuel Kant –Alemang Pilosoper – 1775 – nanggaling sa isang malaking ulap o nebula – composisyon ay gas – sinang-ayunan ni Laplace –syentistang Pranses -1796 – ang planeta ay resulta ng mainit at mabilis na pag-ikot ng araw na sa mula’t mula pa ay mainit at umiikot na.

c.       Teoryang Planetesimal – ika -19 na siglo – teoryang maliliit na planeta – ang araw ay dumaan sa isang bituin. Sa bilis ng paghihiwalay, mainit na gas ang umagos sa pagitan nito. Unti unting lumamig ang gas at naging patak ng likido na tumigas at nabuo sa isang pitak ng bato o planetesimal.

d.      Teoryang Big-Bang – teoryang malakas na pagsabog

e.       Teorya ng Espesyal na Paglalang – Biblical

f.        Teorya ng Kontenenteng Umaanod – Alfred Wegener – 1912 – Pangaea –isang masa ng salita – nahiwalay – Gondwanaland at Laurasia – isang pulgada bawat taon

 

2. Ang Daigdig sa Sitemang Solar – nag-iisang planeta sa solar system na may buhay

3. Katangiang Pisikal ng Daigdig

 

     Mga anyong lupa

  1.  
    1. bundok
    2. talampas
    3. burol
    4. libis (valley)
    5. kapatagan
    6. kontinente
    7. Kapuluan
    8. Pulo
    9. Tangway (peninsula)
    10. Canyon

   Mga Anyong Tubig

a.       Karagatan

b.      Dagat

c.       Kipot

d.      Isthmus (canal)

e.       Kipot

f.        Lawa

g.       Ilog

h.       Delta

i.         Batis

 

 

Mga Karagatan ng Daigdig

  1. Pasipiko
  2. Anlantiko
  3. Indian
  4. Arctic

 

Mga Kontinente

  1. Asya –
  2. Europa –
  3. Aprika
  4. Hilagang Amerika
  5. Timog Amerika
  6. Oceania
  7. Antarktika

Week #6 – Hulyo 20 -24, 2009

 

Paksa: Ang mga Unang Tao

 

Mga Layunin

 

  1. Nasusuri ang katangian ng mga yugto ng pag-unlad ng kultura ng unang tao.
  2. Naipagmamalaki na  ang kabihasnan ng diagdig ay unang nalinang at napaunlad sa Asya.
  3. Magawa ang masusing pagsusuri sa mga mahahalagang pangyayari na naganap sa mundo
  1. Simula ng Buhay sa Sinaunang Daigdig

 

Buod –tanaw:

 

Ang nag-iisang paliwanag tungkol sa pagkaroon ng buhay sa daigdig ay ang nababatay sa relihiyon.  Ito ay ang tinatawag na creationism o ang paniniwala na ang mga nabubuhay na bagay sa mundo o daigdig ay nilikha ng Panginoong  Diyos. Ang kabuuang kasaysayan nito ay mababasa sa unang aklat ng Biblia: ang Genesis o ang pasimula. Dito malinaw na mababasa ang proseso ng paglalang na ginawa ng ating Panginoong Diyos na siyang naghahayag ng Kanyang kapangyarihan at kadakilaan.

 

Mga Lahi ng Tao

 

1. Caucasoid – maputi

2. Mongoloid – dilaw

3. Negroid – itim

4. Australoid – maitim na maliit

 

 

Ang Pinagmulan ng Tao ayon sa Relihiyong Paniniwala

 

Urin ng Paglalang sa Tao (Iba’t Ibang Paraan)

 

1. Alabok – Adan

2. Tadyang – Eba

3. Espiritu Santo – Panginoong Jesucristo

4. Matrimonyo – Tayo

 

Ano ang kayarian o sangkap mayroon ang tao?

 

1. espiritu – hininga ng buhay na galing sa Diyos

2. kaluluwa- katawang loob/pagkataong loob

3. pisikal na katawan

 

  1. Kultura na Panahong Paleolitiko
  2. Mga Pag-unlad sa Panahon ng Gitnang Bato at Panahon ng Bagong Bato
  3. Pag-unlad ng Tao sa Panahong Metal

Week #7 – (Hulyo 28-31, 2009)  (Nota: Hulyo 27, 2009 – 95th INC Day –Holiday)

 

Tao ayon sa Biblia

 

                                               Cain

Adan ——-Eba——-                                                                                                Sem

 

                                                  Abel- pinatay ni Cain ——- Seth —–Noeh           Cham

 

                                                                                                                                 Japhet

 

                                                                      Esau

Sem —– Abraham ——– Isaac

 

                                                                   Jacob —– 12 angkan ni Israel 

 

 

 

 

 

TIMELINE NG KASAYSAYAN

 


PANAHON BAGO ANG KASAYSAYAN

(PREHISTORIC PERIOD)

PANAHON NG KASAYSAYAN

(HISTORIC PERIOD)

 

 

               

Ice Age

PALEO

LITIKO

MESO

LITIKO

NEOLITIKO

SINAUNANG PANAHON

GITNANG

PANAHON

MAKABAGONG PANAHON

KASALUKUYAN

Panahon ng

Metal

Atomic Age

Nuclear

Age

Computer Age

ITC Age

Tanso

Bronse

Bakal

                       

?——-c.300,000 B.C.—c.12,000B.C.—–c.8,000B.C.—–c.3,500B.C———-c.476 A.D.——–c. 1450A.D.——c.1500A.D—-c.1960——c.1970—-c.1980- 2006 .AD.

                                                                                                                                                                  c. 4B.C. Birth of Christ  

                                                    PANAHON BAGO ANG KRISTO (B.C.         ANNO DOMINI (A.D.) PANAHON NS

 

                                                                                                                                      Rennaissance

                                                                                   c.3300 B.C.         c. 2,500. B.C.

                                                                                   Kabihasanan sa                Kabihasnan sa Ilog-           c. Pagbagsak ng

                                                                                   Ilog-Lambak Nile             lambak Huang Ho          Imperyo Romano sa

                                                                                   Kabihasnan sa  Mesopotamia  c.2700B.C.                   Kanluran                    Cold War

                                                                                    Pagkakatuklas sa               Kabihasnan sa

                                                                                    Unang sistema ng              Ilog-lambak Indus

                                                                                     Pagsulat

 

                                                                                                                                     

                      P     A     G     L     A     L     A     N     G                                      B     I     B     L     I     C     A     L           A     C     C     O     U     N     T     S

1st Day

2nd Day

3rd Day

4th Day

5th Day

6th Day

 

 

 

 

                                                             c. 4500B.C.—c.2400 B.C.—c. 2,000 B.C.—c. 1400 B.C. -c.1053 B.C.—c. 1013 B.C.–c. 973 B.C.

                                                                                                Paglalang ng       Bahang Gunaw Abraham Moises at  Saul  David    Solomon

                                                                                              Panginoong Diyos kay Adan at Eba              Exodus

Paglikha ng Paghihiwalay  Paglalang  Paglalang ng  Paglalang ng        Paglalang

                    ng tubig sa     ng mga      araw, buwan   mga isda at          sa mga hayop

  Liwanag     kaitaasan at   buhay-       at bituin        mga ibon (fowl)   sa lupa at sa

                   sa ibaba at      halaman                                                          tao

                  pagkakaroon

                   ng kalawakan

 

July 5, 2009

The History of the Tribe of Asher (Happy)

Filed under: Uncategorized @ 7:42 am and

Asher


Asher was the eighth son of Jacob and the father of the tribe of Asher, one of the twelve tribes of Israel. His mother was Zilpah, Leah’s maidservant. Leah named him Asher, saying “Happy am I” (Genesis 30:13). Asher played a role in the plot to sell his brother Joseph into slavery. Asher and his four sons and daughter later settled in Egypt. Jacob blessed Asher on his deathbed, saying: “From Asher will come the richest food; he will provide the king’s delights” (Genesis 49:20)

 Tribe of Asher

The Tribe of Asher (Hebrew: אָשֵׁר, Modern Ašer Tiberian ʼĀšēr ; “happy”) was one of the Tribes of Israel. At its height, Asher dwelled in western Galilee, a region with comparatively low temperature, and much rainfall, making it some of the most fertile land in Canaan, with rich pasture, wooded hills, and orchards; as such Asher was particularly prosperous, and known for its olive oil[1]. The Blessing of Moses appears to prophecy this, though textual scholars view this as a clear case of postdiction[2][3].

Origin

According to the Torah, the tribe consisted of descendants of Asher the eighth son of Jacob, from whom it took its name. Critical scholars view this as an eponymous metaphor.  Asher is one of the  two descendants of Zilpah,

a handmaid of Jacob, the other being Gad; critical scholars claim that the

authors intended this to mean Asher and Gad were not of entirely of Israelite origin.

 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribe_of_Asher

Announcement

Filed under: Uncategorized @ 7:16 am and

Actitivity 3 will be done in classes starting on Monday… The reading was posted already. It is about budget deficit.. Although the topic is part of macroeconomics but I opted to include that when we discuss about scientific method of solving problem.. So in other words, problems that will used for exercises in doing scientific method of solving economic problems will revolve in the issue of budget…Just read the article or much better if you could print it and have a copy for yourself.

Sorry for the late posting due to internet connectivity…PLDT the telecommunication oligopolist, my service provider gave me a lot of headaches these past days due to their own error….system error, that’s why i was not in the web for almost 5 days….Kindly advise others to save and print the article posted already.  See you tomorrow…I’ll give you the feedback of your previous activities.  Godspeed.. 

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