Social Scientist

March 13, 2011

Reviewer in World History (Finals)

Filed under: Reviewer in World History @ 1:12 am and

Reviewer in World History (Finals)

 

“The wisdom of the enlightened shines as they speak and do things” 

Are the statements valid or invalid?

France during the old regime was under the limited monarchy. Palace of Versailles was the symbol of Bourbon extravagance.

The Reigns of Terror ended the old regime in France. Queen Marie Antoinette was sentenced  to death through guillotine.

Philippines is a democratic state with republican system of government. Its legislature is adopting a bicameral system.

The Constitution is the fundamental law of the land. Great Britain has written constitution.

United States of America is composed of 50 states. It was not colonized by any country.

Industrialization is for the welfare of rich only. It is the aim of every country in the world.

Earth is the center of solar system according to geocentric theory. It was postulated by Ptolemy.

Necessity is the mother of invention. Wireless telegraph was invented by Marconi.

King John I signed the Magna Carta or Great Charter. Some of its provisions are the foundation of the Bill of Rights.

 

Tithes                                                              

Absolute monarchy

Cold war                                                                     

Control of natural resources     

Lavish and luxurious way of life                        

Climate change

Allied forces                                                                

National Assembly

Industrialization                                                

Overpopulation

Clergies and clerics                                                      

Axis power

The proletariat or working class                                   

Water Pollution

Communism

 Basic Information

It was the gathering of European leaders aimed in restoring the balance of power in Europe when Napoleon was in exile in the island of Elba.

Events leading to World War I             

Colonial rivalries sparked war

Immediate cause of World War I                     

Outbreak of War

Military alliance provoked war             

The establishment of the League of Nation

Formulation of Entente Cordiale

European competition for spheres of influence in China

Friendship of Italy, Germany, and Austria-Hungary

Assassination of Francis Ferdinand

July 27, 1914

An international organization formed in response to World War II.

It is a foreign policy which aimed to extend the nation’s power over other lands and peoples.

Humans are malnourished because of what?

A government wherein a king or a queen rules within the framework of the constitution.

Which does not belong the group of political concepts?

Cold war existed because of what?

Terrorism is sometimes used by political organization and pursue their objectives.

What is the most pressing problem that the world and humanity is facing at present?

It is a concept which means that no single country should have overwhelming power over other countries.

 “Every nation’s leader must be an instrument of peace and not war”. What it means?

It was during her reigns that England reached her glorious and golden age.

What method Sir Frances Bacon urged all scientists to use?

Why Copernicus, Galileo, and Bruno were declared heretic by the Roman Catholic Church?

How did John Napier make mathematics easier?

Different philosophies and thinkers changed the idea concerning the role of an individual in the society.

In his book, Smith stated that countries could gain prosperity by removing trade restrictions such as tariffs and supply and demand could govern the exchange of goods. What is the title of his book?

\The birthplace of industrial revolution.

What is an act forbidding the employment of children under nine years old?

 “Bourgeoisie” is also a name given to whom?

The grand palace of France that was the symbol French monarchies’ extravagance and power.

What is the method used by the leaders during the “Reign of Terror” in beheading the enemies?

What is the slogan of the French Revolution?

What is the document in English history that guaranteed individual liberties such as the freedom from excessive bail and the right to jury trial?

What is the act of Congress on July 4, 1776 which established the United States of America?

All of the following are factors in exploration and discoveries. Which does not belong to the group?

Technology greatly helped exploration and discoveries. Which one is not included?

Analyze the words if the relationship is cause and effect or effect and cause.

Statement: Modern technology/ exploration and discoveries

Trade improve during the period of exploration and discoveries.

What country pioneered in exploring and discovering distant lands and later on colonizing them?

According to the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, all of the land found in the west side of the demarcation line will go to what country?

One of the results of European exploration was the greatest change in ecology the world has ever known.

Who authored the declaration of the American Independence?

Why there was no change in the pattern of Latin American’s life after independence?

The intense feeling of patriotism and love of one’s country.

 

Who said what?

 

“The government was to rule wisely and protect the citizens’ right to life, liberty, and   property.”

 “I led the Continental army and became the first president of the United States of America.”

 “I am the first Prime Minister of England.”

“Conflicts had been fought for… democracy… for the rights and liberties of small nations for free people.”

 “I led Germany to World War II, blitzkrieg Poland and stirred chaos in all of Europe.”

 “ I shall return.”

. “I became general at the age of 24, ruled France for 15 years, exiled in Elba and St. Helena.”

“My assassination sparks the flame of World War I.”

 “I was known as the Father of Socialism and co-authored the books Das Kapital and Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engel.”

 “Almost everything that happened in the Soviet Union between 1928 to 1983 was wrong and must be corrected. If we are silent of our shortcomings, they will eventually grow.”

“I discovered the New World and thought that I reached the Indies so I called the natives Indians.”

 “I sailed in the name of Spanish King, I named the South Sea discovered by Balboa as Pacific and reached the Philippine islands but was killed by a brave chieftain of Mactan, Cebu”.

 “I am the State, I built the beautiful and magnificent palace of Versailles as symbol of my power.”

 “I may not agree of what you say, but I will defend to death your right to say it.”

 “Children should be educated towards becoming good citizens and be allowed to progress in their own way.”

 

To the Competitors and All 3rd Year Students of World History:

God Bless you always… keep up the best within you..

           

February 20, 2011

Final Examination for Graduting Students in STC 3-05

Filed under: Uncategorized @ 9:06 am and

Final Examination in STC 3-05                       2nd Semester 2010-2011

 

1. Answer what is being asked:

 

Explain the following briefly but concise:

a. Teaching and learning are not necessarily related.

b. Consistently, good learning rarely occur without effective teaching.

c. The best, most effective teachers are those who establish conditions most conducive to learning.

d. Change is inevitable. Progress is optional.

 

2. What are the basic conditions for learning? Explain each.

3. What are the desirable conditions for learning? Explain each.

4. How teaching for learning is enhance?

5. What are the challenges of curriculum reform?

6. What are the 21st century core skills? Describe each.

7. What are the features of the 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum (SEC)?

8. Illustrate the comparison of the conventional design curriculum and the 2010 SEC using understanding by design model (DbD).

9. What learning standard are for?

10. What are the difference between content standards and performance standards?

11. What are the facets of understanding? Give an example in your field of specialization.

12. What are the characteristics of a child friendly school?

13. What is K+12 curriculum means?

14. How the K+12 curriculum be implemented?

15. What are the guiding principles of K+12 curriculum implementation?

16. Make an outline of a lesson or semi detailed lesson plan  that shows integration of the following  concepts in different subject areas:

a. Science – ecosystem

b. Math – number of species

c. Social studies/current issues – climate change

d. Arts – painting

e. English – communication skills

 

Congratulations…. God bless…

  

Note: Submit your answer to my e- mail on or before February 22, 2011. (Tuesday)

 

Dr. Ronnie G. Cainglet

Final exams for Graduating Students in STC 3-05

Filed under: Uncategorized @ 8:58 am and

Final Examination in STC 3-05

2nd Semester 2010-2011

Answer what is being asked:

1. Explain the following briefly but concise:
a. Teaching and learning are not necessarily related.
b. Consistently, good learning rarely occur without effective teaching.
c. The best, most effective teachers are those who establish conditions most conducive to learning.
d. Change is inevitable. Progress is optional.

2. What are the basic conditions for learning? Explain each.
3. What are the desirable conditions for learning? Explain each.
4. How teaching for learning is enhance?
5. What are the challenges of curriculum reform?
6. What are the 21st century core skills? Describe each.
7. What are the features of the 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum (SEC)?
8. Illustrate the comparison of the conventional design curriculum and the 2010 SEC using understanding by design model (DbD).
9. What learning standard are for?
10. What are the difference between content standards and performance standards?
11. What are the facets of understanding? Give an example in your field of specialization.
12. What are the characteristics of a child friendly school?
13. What is K+12 curriculum means?
14. How the K+12 curriculum be implemented?
15. What are the guiding principles of K+12 curriculum implementation?
16. Make an outline of a lesson or semi detailed lesson plan that shows integration of the following concepts in different subject areas:
a. Science – ecosystem
b. Math – number of species
c. Social studies/current issues – climate change
d. Arts – painting
e. English – communication skills

Congratulations…. God bless…

Note: Submit your answer to my e- mail on or before February 22, 2011. (Tuesday)

Dr. Ronnie G. Cainglet

August 16, 2010

Constitution, Economics,Taxation, Agrarian Reform with Culture and Society

Filed under: LET Reviewer and Practice Test @ 11:34 pm and

LET REVIEW 2010

 

SOCIAL SCIENCES

 

CLUSTER/SUBJECT COMPETENCIES

 

Philippine Government with New Constitution

 

1.1. Demonstrate understanding of the various forms of government from the barangay to the present system.

 

1.2. Explain the nature and provisions of the present Constitution, its advantages and disadvantages over the others in the past and its function as fundamental law of the states.

 

Practice Test

 

1. All of the following constitute the meaning of political science except:

  1. A basic knowledge and understanding of the state.
  2. It is primarily concerned with the association of human beings into a political community.
  3. Common knowledge every events taking place in the society.
  4. It deals with the relationship among men and groups which are subject to the control by the state.

2. It refers to the community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, having a government of their own to which the great body of inhabitants render obedience, and enjoying freedom from external control.

  1. Sovereignty                 
  2. Nation
  3. Citizenship                   
  4. State

3. It refers to the agency through which the will of the state is formulated, expressed and carried out.

  1. Government
  2. Sovereignty
  3. Constitution
  4. Laws

4. What are the four elements of state?

A. people, territory, sovereignty, government

B. people, constitution, territory, government

C. government, law, peace, territory

D. constitution, people, land, independence

5. What theory asserts that the early states must have been formed by deliberate and voluntary compact among the people to form a society and organize government for their common good.

  1. Necessity Theory
  2. Devine Right Theory
  3. Social Contact Theory
  4. Social Compact Theory

6. Government exists and should continue to exist for the benefit of the people.

  1. The statement is a general truth.
  2. The statement is just an assumption.
  3. The statement is a fallacy.
  4. There is no basis for judgment.

7. What are the forms of government in which the political power is exercised by a few privilege class.

  1. Oligarchy and Aristocracy
  2. Aristocracy and Monarchy
  3. Theocracy and Fascism
  4. Democracy and Tyranny

8. The pre-colonial Philippines has no established government. Its villages and settlements were called barangays.

  1. Only the first statement is true and correct.
  2. Only the second statement is true and correct.
  3. Both statements are true and correct.
  4. Both statements are untrue and incorrect.

9. There were four social classes of people in the pre-colonial barangays. They were the nobles, freemen, serfs, and the slaves.

  1. Only the first statement is true and correct.
  2. Only the second statement is true and correct.
  3. Both statements are true and correct.
  4. Both statements are untrue and incorrect.

10. What are the two known written codes during the pre-Spanish era in the Philippines?

  1. Maragtas and Kalantiaw Codes
  2. Sumakwil and Sulayman Codes
  3. Panay and Subanon Codes
  4. Hammurabi and Ur Nammu Codes

11. Under the Spanish colonial government, who directly governed the Philippines?

  1. The Governor-General
  2. The Viceroy of Mexico
  3. The Royal Audiencia
  4. The King of Spain

12. What is the first city to be established in 1565 in the Philippines?

  1. Manila
  2. Davao
  3. Cebu
  4. Iloilo

13.The government which Spain established in the Philippines was defective. It was a government for the Spaniards and not for the Filipinos.

  1. Only the first statement is true and correct.
  2. Only the second statement is true and correct.
  3. Both statements are true and correct.
  4. Both statements are untrue and incorrect

14. What was the secret society founded in 1896 that precipitated the glorious revolution against the Spaniards.

  1. The Katipunan
  2. The Kalahi
  3. The Biak na Bato Republic
  4. The Ilustrado

15. Arranged the sequence of governments during the revolutionary era:
      1. The Dictatorial Government
      2. The Revolutionary Government
      3. The Biak-na-Bato Republic
      4. The First Philippine Republic

  1. 2 3 1 4
  2. 3 1 2 4
  3. 4 1 3 2
  4. 1 2 3 4

16. Arranged according to its establishment during the American Regime:
       1. The Commonwealth Government
       2. The Military Government
       3. The Civil Government

  1. 1 2 3
  2. 2 3 1
  3. 3 2 1
  4. 2 1 3

 

 

17. What was the civil government established during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines?

  1. The Japanese Imperial Government
  2. The Philippine Republic
  3. The Puppet Government of Japan
  4. The Philippine Executive Commission

18. The Constitution used by the Philippine government from the commonwealth period until 1973.

  1. The Malolos Constitution
  2. The Biak-na-Bato Constitution
  3. The 1935 Constitution
  4. The 1901 Constitution

19. What kind of government was installed under the 1973 Constitution under the Marcos regime?

  1. Modified Presidential system
  2. Modified Parliamentary system
  3. Military system
  4. Bicameral system

20. A de facto government acquires a de jure status when it gains wide acceptance from the people and recognition from the community of nations.

  1. The statement is true and valid.
  2. The statement is an assumption.
  3. The statement is a fallacy.
  4. The statement is doubtful.

21. It is defined as written instrument by which the fundamental powers of the government are established, limited and defined and by which these powers are distributed among the several departments or branches for their and useful exercise for the benefit of the people.

  1. Laws
  2. Statutes
  3. Constitution
  4. Ordinances

22. There is no Constitution that is entirely written or unwritten.

  1. The statement is true and correct.
  2. The statement is incorrect.
  3. The statement is partially correct.
  4. There is no basis to conclude.

23. Requisites of a good written constitution.

  1. Brief
  2. Broad
  3. Definite
  4. All of the given options

24. Who has the authority to interpret the constitution?

  1. Private individual
  2. Courts
  3. Legislative and Executive departments of the government
  4. All of the given options

25. “We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty God , in order to build a just and humane society and establish a government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations, promote our common good, conserve and develop our patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law and the regime of truth, justice, freedom, equality and peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.” 
What part of Constitution is this?

  1. General Provision
  2. Amendments
  3. Preamble
  4. National Patrimony

 

 

 

Economics, Taxation, Land Reform, and Cooperative

3.1 Manifest understanding of the Philippine economic condition with respect to taxation, land reform, cooperative as well as to the growth of its Gross National Product (GNP).

 

3.2 Apply the economic principles to the current economic condition of the Philippines.

 

Practice Tests

 

1. The problem of scarcity _____.

A. arises only in poor countries.

B. exists because the price of goods is too high.

C. exists because of limited resources.

D. will eventually be solve by better planning.

2. “If an individual is to maximize the utility received from the consumption, he or she should spend all available income…” This statement assumes ________.

  1. that saving is impossible.
  2. that the individual is not satiated in all goods.
  3. that no goods are “inferior.”
  4. both A and B.

3. An individual’s demand curve
A. represents the various quantities that the consumer is willing to purchase of a good at various
     price levels.
B. is derived from an individual’s indifference curve map.
C. will shift if preferences, price of other goods, or income change.
D. all of the above.

4. What is a firm?

  1. A president, some vice presidents, and some employees
  2. Any organization that wants to make a profit.
  3. Any accumulation of productive assets.
  4. Any organization that turns inputs into outputs

5. If more and more labor is employed while keeping all other inputs constant, the marginal physical productivity of labor _____.

  1. will eventually increase.
  2. will eventually decrease.
  3. will eventually remain constant.
  4. cannot tell from the information provided.

6. In general, microeconomic theory assumes that the firms attempt to maximize the difference between ______.

  1. total revenue and accounting costs.
  2. price and marginal cost.
  3. total revenues and economic costs.
  4. economic costs and average cost.

7. In a competitive market, efficient allocation of resources is characterized by ________.

  1. a price greater than the marginal cost of production.
  2. the possibility of further mutually beneficial transactions.
  3. the largest possible sum of consumer and producer surplus.
  4. a value of consumer surplus equal to that of producer surplus.

8. Price controls _______.

  1. are always popular with consumers because they lower prices.
  2. create shortages.
  3. increase producer surplus because firms can now sell a greater quantity of a good at a lower price.
  4. are necessary to preserve equity.

9. The excess burden of tax is ____.

  1. The amount of which the price of a good increases
  2. The loss of consumer and producer surplus that is not transferred elsewhere.
  3. The amount y which a person’s after-tax income decrease as a result of the new tax.
  4. The welfare costs to firms forced to leave the market due to an inward shift of the demand curve.

10. In the opening of the free trade, if world prices of a good are less than domestic prices of that same good, _________.

  1. domestic consumers will experience a loss of surplus.
  2. domestic prices will drop to the world price level.
  3. all domestic producers of that good will try to find another market because they can’t compete with foreign producers.
  4. domestic producers will increase the quantity supplied in order to crowd out the foreign produced goods.

11. It states that as the price of the commodities increase the amount of goods the consumer is willing to purchase decrease and as the price of the commodities decrease the willingness of the consumer to buy increases and other factor remain constant.

  1. Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility      
  2. Law of Gravity
  3. Law of Supply             
  4. Law of Demand

12. A deliberate attempt to recognize and transform existing agrarian system with the intention of improving the distribution of agricultural incomes and thus fostering rural development.

  1. Millennium Development Plan                            C.  Water Reform                      
  2. Land Reform                                                     D.  Development Goals 

13. What is the process by which the productive capacity of the economy is increased over time to bring about rising levels of national output and income?

  1. Economic growth                                               C.  Economic development                    
  2. Industry                                                              D. Employment              

14. A system whereby the determination of exchange rate is left solely to the market forces.

  1. Foreign exchange liberalization   
  2. Import liberalization  
  3. Terms of trade  
  4. Foreign investment

15. All are possible results when a high population growth rate continues in the Third World except

  1. growth of slums
  2. spread of diseases due to poverty and poor sanitation
  3. not enough schools, hospitals, roads, bridges, etc.
  4. increased Gross National Product

16. Which of the following is the nature of power of taxation?

  1. It is inherent in sovereignty.
  2. It is legislative in nature.
  3. It is subject to constitutional and inherent limitations.
  4. All of the above

17. A kind of tax based on the rate of which decreases as the tax base or bracket increases.

  1. Progressive                                           C. Regressive
  2. Graduated                                            D. Proportional

18. Agrarian reform program, Philippine experience is a success.

  1. The statement is generally true.
  2. The statement is doubtful.
  3. The statement is untrue.
  4. There is no basis to conclude.

19. It is also known as the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law (CARL)

  1. Presidential Decree # 2
  2. Presidential Decree # 27
  3. Republic Act 6657
  4. Republic Act 5766

20. The Cooperatives Development Program of the government is designed primarily to support the agrarian reform program. It aims to achieve a dignified existence for the small farmers free from pernicious institutional restraints and practices.

  1. Only the first statement is true and correct.
  2. Only the second statement is true and correct.
  3. Both statements are true and correct.
  4. Both statements are untrue and incorrect.

Philippine Government and Constitution

 

Elements of State

  1. People
  2. Territory
  3. Government
  4. Sovereignty
    1. internal
    2. external

Origin of States

  1. Devine Right Theory
  2. Necessity or Force Theory
  3. Paternalistic Theory
  4. Social Contract Theory

State distinguished from nation

            State is a political concept while nation is an ethnic concept.

            State is not subject to external control while nation may or may not be.

            A single state may consist of one or more nations or people and conversely, a single

nation may be made up of several states.

Purpose and Necessity of Government

  1.  
    1. Advancement of the public welfare
    2. Consequence of absence

Forms of Government

  1. As to  number of persons exercising sovereign powers:
    1. Monarchy
  1.  
    1.  
      1. absolute
      2. limited
  1.  
    1. Aristocracy
    2. Democracy

      1. direct or pure democracy

      2. Indirect, representative, or republican

  1. As to extent of powers exercise by the central or national government:
    1. Unitary government
    2. Federal Government
  2. As to relationship between the executive and the legislative branches of the government:
    1. Parliamentary government
    2. Presidential government

 

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES IN TRANSITION

 

The pre-Spanish government

  1. Unit of government
  2. Datu
  3. Social classes in the government
    1. nobility
    2. freemen
    3. serfs
    4. slaves
  4. Early Laws
    1. Maragtas Code
    2. Kalantiaw Code

Government during the Spanish period

  1. Spain’s title to the Philippines
  2. Spanish Colonial government
  3. Government in the Philippines unitary
  4. The Governor-General
  5. The Judiciary

Government during the Revolutionary era

  1. The Katipunan  government
  2. The Biak-na-bato republic
  3. The Dictatorial Government
  4. The Revolutionary Government
  5. The First Philippine Republic

Governments during the American regime

  1. The Military Government
  2.  The Civil Government
  3. The Commonwealth Government of the Philippines

Government during the Japanese occupation

  1. The Japanese Military Administration
  2. The Philippine Executive Commissions
  3. The Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines

The Provisional Government of 1986

  1. Revolutionary
  2. De jure./ de facto – the first is one constituted or founded in accordance with the existing constituted not in accordance with the procedure provided in an existing constitution of the sate, while the other is not so constituted or founded but has the general support of the people and effective control  of the territory over which it exercises its powers.
  3. Constitutional and transitory
  4. Democratic
  5. Powers
  6. The Provisional Constitution

 

CONCEPT OF CONSTITUTION

 

Nature and purpose or function of constitution

  1. Serves as the supreme or fundamental law
  2. Establishes basic framework and underlying principles of government

Kinds of Constitution

  1. As to their origin and history
  1. Conventional or enacted
  2. Cumulative or evolved
  3. Written
  4. Unwritten
  5. Rigid or inelastic
  6. Flexible or elastic
  1. as to their form
  1. As to manner of amending them:

Requisites of a good written constitution

  1. As to form, a good written constitution should be:
    1. Brief
    2. Broad
    3. Definite
  2. As to contents, it should contain at least three sets of provisions:
    1. That dealing with the framework of government and its powers, and defining the electorate. This group of provisions has been called the constitution of government.
    2. That setting forth the fundamental rights of the people and imposing certain limitations on the powers of the government as a means of securing the enjoyment of these rights. This group has been referred as to the constitution of liberty.
    3. That pointing out the mode or procedure for amending or revising the constitution. This group has been called the constitution of sovereignty

 

CONSTITUTIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES

The 1935 Constitution

The 1973 Constitution

 

 

 

Parts of the 1987 Constitution

 

Preamble

Article 1 – National Territory

Article II – Declaration of Principles and State Policies

Article III – Bill of Rights

Article IV – Citizenship

Article V – Suffrage

Article VI – Legislative Department

Article VII – Executive Department

Article VIII – Judicial Department

Article IX – Constitutional Commission

Article X – Local Government

Article XI – Accountability of Public Officers

Article XII – National Economy and Patrimony

Article XIII – Social Justice and Human Rights

Article XIV – Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports

Article XV – The Family

Article XVI – General Provisions

Article XVII – Amendments or Revisions

Article XVIII – Transitory Provisions

 

 

AGRARIAN REFORM IN THE PHILIPPINES

 

A. The agrarian problem

            1. The Philippines agrarian problem

            2. Right to own property, universal but limited

            3. A historico-political survey of the agrarian problem and agrarian legislation

B. Imperative of Agrarian Reform

            1. Necessity of agrarian reform in the Philippines

            2. Objections to agrarian reforms

            3. Components of agrarian reform

            4. Arguments for the  “land to the tiller” program

            5. Companion measures to land distribution

            6. Role of the farmer in agrarian reform

            7. Role of the landlord in agrarian reform

C. Constitutional Provisions Relevant to Agrarian Reform

            1. Promotion of just and dynamic order

            2. Expropriation of private property

            3. Promotion of social justice

D. Bill of Rights for Agricultural Labor

            1. Exercise of right to self-organization

           

CARP

  1. Coverage
  2. Improvement of Tenurial and Labor Relation
    1. Agricultural Leasehold and lease rental determination
    2. Production sharing plan
    3. Land Acquisition and Redistribution
      1. Compulsory acquisition of private lands
      2. Qualified beneficiaries
      3. Compensation
      4. Corporate farms
      5. Support Services

 

 

 

 

GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TAXATION

 

Concepts, Nature, and Characteristics of Taxation and Taxes

  1. Purpose and importance of taxation
  2. Essential characteristics of tax
  3. Theory and basis of taxation
  4. Nature of power of taxation

 

 

NATIONAL TAXES

 

  1.  
    1. Income Tax
    2. Estate Tax
    3. Donor’s Tax
    4. Value Added Tax
    5. Percentage Taxes
    6. Excise Tax
    7. Documentary Stamp Tax
    8. Custom Duties
    9. Travel Tax
    10. Energy Tax
    11. Private Motor Vehicle Tax

 

 

 

Answer Key to Practice Tests

Philippine Government with Constitution                        Economics, Taxation, CARP

  1. C                                            
  2. D                                                                     1. C
  3. A                                                                     2. D
  4. A                                                                     3. D
  5. C                                                                     4. D
  6. A                                                                     5. B
  7. A                                                                     6. C
  8. C                                                                     7. C
  9. C                                                                     8. B
  10. A                                                                     9. B
  11. D                                                                     10. B
  12. C                                                                     11. D
  13. C                                                                     12. B
  14. A                                                                     13. A
  15. B                                                                      14. A
  16. B                                                                      15. D
  17. D                                                                     16. D
  18. C                                                                     17. C
  19. B                                                                      18. C
  20. A                                                                     19. C
  21. C                                                                     20. C
  22. A
  23. D
  24. D
  25. C

August 7, 2010

Philosophies of Education Practice Test

Filed under: LET Reviewer and Practice Test @ 10:21 pm and

Philosophies of Education

 

Practice Test

 

1. Which is not an objective of humanistic education?

  1. To free individuals from all
  2. To free individuals from the demands of the monasteries, the church, and guilds.
  3. To provide rich and full live for all
  4. To provide personal culture and individual freedom

2. The following are definitions of philosophy EXCEPT

  1. It deals with the nature of being and existence
  2. It deals with the values of right and wrong
  3. It deals with mythology
  4. It deals with the native of knowledge and the process of knowing

3. A branch of philosophy that deals with the first principles, the origin an essence of things, the causes and end of thing.

  1. Naturalism
  2. Epistemology
  3. Logic
  4. Pragmatism

4. A Philosophy that states that the tendency, movement, or more definite system of thought in which stress is place upon critical consequence and values as standard for explicating philosophic concept, and as a test of truth lies in its practical consequence and that the purpose of conduct.

  1. Naturalism
  2. Epistemology
  3. Logic
  4. Pragmatism

5. It states that the universals are independent of antecedent to and more real than the specific individual instances in which they manifest.

  1. Naturalism
  2. Existentialism
  3. Realism
  4. Progressivism

6. This philosophy believes that the child is the center of the educational process

  1. Progressivism
  2. Naturalism
  3. Humanism
  4. Existentialism

7. This philosophy advocates that the individual will be educated for his life here on earth and to prepare for the life beyond.

  1. Naturalism
  2. Pragmatism
  3. Existentialism
  4. Supernaturalism

8. Holds the view that human existence, or the human situation is the starting point of thinking

a. Existentialism

b. Realism

c. Progressivism

d. Naturalism

9. He stated that “each person should devote his life to that which he is best fitted to do.”

  1. Plato
  2. Aristotle
  3. Socrates
  4. Locke

10. The following are John Locke’s view about education EXCEPT

a. “Tabula rasa” or “blank paper” theory

b. Man should live a simple life.

  1. Education can shape the pupil according to the will of the teacher.
  2. Training gained in one area can be applied in another area.

11. He give emphasis on development of the child according to his nature.

  1. Locke
  2. Spencer
  3. Socrates
  4. Rousseau

12. Which of the following is John Dewey’s thought on education?

  1. Education is a continuous reconstruction of experiences.
  2. Education should be used for service
  3. Knowledge that is best for use in life is also best for the development of power.
  4. It is consequences that make the choice good or bad.

13. Which of the following is the philosophical teaching of Jesus Christ?

  1. Education is a continuous reconstruction of experiences.
  2. Education should be used for service
  3. Knowledge that is best for use in life is also best for the development of power.
  4. It is consequences that make the choice good or bad.

14. All of the following are functions of philosophies of education EXCEPT

  1. Provide guidelines in the formulation of the educational policies and programs and in the construction of curricula.
  2. Provide direction toward which all educational effort should be exerted.
  3. Provide theories and hypothesis which may be tested for their effectiveness and efficiency.
  4. Create a new system of thoughts that challenges the existing paradigm.

15. Philosophies provide the teacher with basis for making his decision concerning his work. It helps the teacher develop a wide range of interest, attitudes, and values concomitant to his professional life as teacher.

  1. Both statements are true and correct
  2. Only the second statement is true and correct
  3. Both statements are untrue and incorrect
  4. Only the first statement is true and correct

16. A philosophical foundation of education that believes that one should be able to control and regulate his desires, not to devote life to sensual pleasure success.

  1. Islam
  2. Hinduism
  3. Buddhism
  4. Confucianism

17. Every person should strive for the continual development of self until excellence is achieved.

  1. Islam
  2. Hinduism
  3. Buddhism
  4. Confucianism

18.  This philosophy emphasizes that educational concern must be on the child interest, desires, and the learner’s freedom as an individual rather than the subject matter.

  1. Progressivism
  2. Positivism
  3. Realism
  4. Naturalism

19. It spouses that legitimate human knowledge arises from what is provided to the mind by the senses or by introspective awareness through experience.

  1. Progressivism
  2. Positivism
  3. Realism
  4. Empiricism

20. A philosophical movement characterized by an emphasis upon science and scientific method as the only source of knowledge.

  1. Progressivism
  2. Positivism
  3. Realism
  4. Empiricism

Filed under: LET Reviewer and Practice Test @ 9:58 pm and

LET REVIEW 2010

PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION

By: DR. RONNIE G. CAINGLET

 

What is Philosophy?

- is the science that seeks to organize and systemize all fields of knowledge as a means of understanding and interpreting the totality of reality.

- systematic and logical explanation of the nature, existence, purpose and relationships of things, including human beings in the universe.

 

Main Branches of Philosophy

 1. Metaphysics – deals with the first principles, the origin an essence of things, the causes and end of thing. 

- it is the science of existence.

2. Epistemology – deals with knowledge and with ways of knowing.

 - Conceptua

- Perceptual

  – Intuitive

 

 

 3. Axiology – deals with purposes and values.

- Ethics

4. Logic – deals with the correct way of thinking.

 

Major Philosophies of Education

 1. Idealism – (Platonic) Reality consists of transcendental universal, form, or ideals which are the object of true knowledge.

(DECS order No. 13 s 1998 – Revised rules and regulation on the teaching of religion in public elementary and secondary schools)

 

2. Naturalism – This opposed to idealism. This is the view that the whole of reality is nature.

3. Pragmatism – a tendency, movement, or more definite system of thought in which stress is place upon critical consequence and values as standard for explicating philosophic concept, and as a test of truth lies in its practical consequence and that the purpose of conduct.

 - James

- Chiller

- Dewey

4. Supernaturalism – has a purpose to educate the individual for his life here on earth and to prepare for the life beyond.

 Humanism – places human being over in above worldly things.

 

5. Realism– universals are independent of antecedent to and more real than the specific individual instances in which they manifest.

 

6. Progressivism 

  – dominated by the technological experimental advancement which have so powerfully shaped our modern culture.

(DECS order No. 57 s 1998 – Clarification on the changes in the Social Studies Program, WH for 3rd year and Economics for  4th year)

(DECS order No 91 s. 1998 – Changes in the THE program of the NSEC)

Some important features of Progressivism

  1. The child as the center of the educational process.
  2. It emphasizes learning by doing.

Advocates of Progressivism

John Dewey

William Kilpatrick

7. Existentialism

 - Puts emphasis on the uniqueness of the individual.

- Existence precedes, that is, essence is created by existence.

 - Human nature is a product of existence.

- Holds the view that human existence, or the human situation is the starting point of thinking.

  – It emphasizes concreteness of the individual.

- It values the freedom of choice, individual dignity, personal love, and creative effort.

 (DECS order no. 65 s. 1998 – revised Guidelines on the selection of honor students in secondary level)

(DECS order no. 10 s. 1998 – Revised system of rating and reporting of student performance for secondary schools)

 

Freedom of choice is an important value of existentialism and is determined or affected to a large extent several factors among which are the following:

  1. Influence of the family especially the parents.
  2. Influence of peers and associates.
  3. Religious orientation
  4. Social approval
  5. Cultural patterns
  6. Financial status
  7. Psychological traits
  8. Sex
  9. Health and physical fitness
  10. Education

8. Positivism

- a philosophical movement characterized by an emphasis upon science and scientific method as the only source of knowledge.

9. Relativism

- a doctrine of relationism or relativity – a theory that knowledge is relative to the limited nature of the mind and the condition of knowing.

10. Materialism

- it maintains that all events are not true to the nature of independent reality and that holds that absolutely true knowledge is impossible.

11. Empiricism

 - it spouses that legitimate human knowledge arises from what is  provided to the mind by the senses or by introspective awareness through experience.

-hence it believes on education through

12. Romanticism

- it questioned the notions of the enlightenment that had dominated Europe in the early 18th century.

13. Epicureanism

- philosophical teaching about nature and ethics that was derived from the writing of Epicurus.

- this philosophy base its knowledge on sense perception, asserting that sensations are invariably good.

 14. Hedonism

 - it centers on pleasure

 - learning is pleasurable

 

 15. Utilitarianism

- it believes that any moral theory that value of human actions, policies, and institutions by their consequences in men’s experience or by general welfare of all person affected by them.

16. Communism

- disregard basic human rights and educates the young for subservience to the state.

 

17. Fascism

  – conceives that the state is an absolute.

 

 18. Progressivism

- it emphasizes that educational concern must be on the child interest, desires, and the learners freedom as an individual rather than the subject matter.

19. Essentialism

 - it ascribes ultimate reality to immense embodied in a thing perceptible to the senses.

The Educational Philosophies of Frontier Thinkers of Education

  1. SOCRATES

            a. The end of life is knowledge.

            b. Knowledge is virtues

            c. “Know thyself”

2. PLATO

            a. Each person should devote his life to that which he is best fitted to do.

            b. The function of education is to determine what each individual is by nature fitted to do.

            c. Social justice (Give what is due to whom it is due)

            d. Intellectual aristocracy (The rule of the intellectual elite)

3. ARISTOTLE

            a. Virtue is not possession of knowledge but state of the will.

            b. The end of education is knowledge alone, but the union of the intellect and the will or knowledge express in action.

            c. Reality, not ideas but the performance, is the highest function.

            d. Adaptation of education to the form of government.

            e. Objective and scientific not introspective method of education 

4. Comenius

            a. Development of the whole life.

            b. Follow the order of nature.

            c. Training for character.

            d. Both sexes should be included in education.

5. LOCKE

            a. “Tabula rasa” or “blank paper” theory

            – a child is born with a blank mind (neither good or bad)

            b. Education can shape the pupil according to the will of the teacher.

            c. Formal discipline

            – Training gained in one area can be applied in another area.

 6. Rousseau

            a. Development of the child according to his nature.

            b. Man should live a simple life.

            c. The child, the important

            d. Use of instinctive tendencies as the starting point of education

   7. Peztalozzi

            a. Education as the process of organized growth.

            b. All education should be founded upon laws of natural development of the child.

            c. Use of object in teaching.

            d. Emphasis on method and technique of teaching.

   8. HERBART

 

            a. Doctrine of apperception

            b. Education should be specific.

            c. Mind is a unity, possessing but one power, that of entering into relation with its environment.

   9. FROEBEL

            a. Self-activity as the means of development.

            b. Play, spontaneous activity, manual and industrial development are utilized to promote self-realization.

            c. Process of education determined by the nature of the child.

10. Spencer

    Knowledge that is best for use in life is also best for the development of power.

  Emphasis on physical education.

  Importance of science in the curriculum

11. WILLIAM JAMES

  Mental activity is functional.

    Knowledge is instrumental.

  It is consequences that make the choice good or bad.

12. JOHN DEWEY

   Education is life

   Education is growth

   Education is a social process

  Education is a continuous reconstruction of experiences. 

13. JESUS CHRIST

   Right relationship with God should precede all kinds and types of education.

    “But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and His righteousness, and everything shall be added unto you” (Matthew 6:33)

 Education should be used for service.

    “Give thyself” is the philosophy of service of Jesus.

FUNCTION OF PHILOSOPHIES OF EDUCATION

  1. Provide guidelines in the formulation of the educational policies and programs and in the construction of curricula.

  2. Provide direction toward which all educational effort should be exerted.

  3. Provide theories and hypothesis which may be tested for their effectiveness and efficiency.

   4. Provide norms or standards for evaluation purposes.

Importance of Philosophy of Education to the Teacher

    1. Provides the teacher with basis for making his decision concerning his work.

2. Help the teacher develop a wide range of interest, attitudes, and values concomitant to his professional life as teacher.

3. Makes a teacher more aware of his own life and work, and makes him more dynamic, discriminating, critical and mentally alert.

   4. Philosophy of education saves time, money and effort

Philosophical Foundation of Education

A. Hinduism

  – (Dharma), characterized by honesty courage, service, faith, self-control, purity, and non-violence

   Dharma can be achieved through Yoga

  Believes that one should be able to control and regulate his desires, not to devote life to sensual pleasure success.

  Religion should be practical.

 God is truth and the best way to seek the truth is by practicing non-violence (Ahimsa)

B. Buddhism

 Believes that personal gratification is the root of suffering in the world.

The teaching of Buddha centered on four noble truths:

    1. All life is suffering, pain, and misery

     2. Selfish craving and personal desire.

    3. Suffering can cease.

  4. Way to overcome this misery is through following the Eight Fold Paths

The Buddha’s Noble Eightfold Path

 

 

 

2. Chinese Philosophies

   Confucianism,

- an essentially optimistic system of belief, argued that those who were naturally virtuous should, while behaving with loyalty and respect, help to govern their country by maintaining their independence and criticizing their rulers if necessary: The government served its citizens, rather than the reverse.

 

Taoism,

 -  by contrast, taught that humans should withdraw from culture and society, devoting themselves to meditation and, like water, adapt themselves to natural forces.

 

3. Japanese Philosophy

  Zen Buddhism

- No savior/s paradise, faith on God, no scriptures.

    -The third eye helps one to see things in addition to what our two eyes show us, and should be attuned to the things around us.

 Emphasizes silent meditation, aiming to awaken the mind in each person.

4. Muslim Philosophy

   Islam

- Emphasized a total commitment in faith obedience, and trust to one and only God.

   Koran, its sacred book is the word of God.

    Each person will be tried on the judgment when Allah will judge all souls.

    Believes in paradise, an oasis of flowing water, pleasant drinks, food and sensual delights.

   Five Pillars of Islam:

–        1. Belief in one God

–        2. Prayer

–        3. Fasting

–        4. Alms giving

–        5. Pilgrimage to Mecca

5. Christian Philosophy

God is the Creator of all thing

 Jesus is the Messiah, Christ, Son of God

  Human being is a sinner who requires redemption

   Jesus came down to earth to redeem mankind

   Baptism is necessary for salvation

   There is life after death

July 24, 2010

Introduction to the Study of Humanities, Elements and Subjects of Arts, Sources of Arts

Filed under: Humanities 1 Lessons 2010-2011 @ 1:03 am and

HUMANITIES I

 

Introduction to Arts and Art Appreciation

 

  • Basic human needs stand at the center of art experience.
  • What these needs are may be debated and rationalized, but their existence cannot be questioned.
  • The need for a sense of identity reinforced by signs and symbols, the need for confirmation of our inner perplexities, the need to be reassured that inner ambivalence, doubts, and anxieties can be given a shape: these needs are so much a part of our humanity that they function at an unconscious level.
  • This course has to do with the understanding and enjoyment of the arts – a subject which concerns all of us, for every day we are consciously and unconsciously having our values shaped by the art around us, and every day we make decisions and judgments that are determined by our understanding of the arts and our sensitivity to them.

 

  • Most people know that they are not getting all the pleasure they could from art. They know others who are getting greater pleasure than they from concerts, paintings, plays, and poetry; and whether or not they realize it, they would like to share these pleasures themselves.
  • In the realm of art, they feel like the inhabitants of the world before Prometheus brought them the divine fire:

 

  • “Though they have the eyes to see, they saw to no avail; they had ears, but understood not; but, like to shapes in dreams, throughout their length of days without purpose they wrought all things in confusion.” – Aeschylus (5th century B.C. Greek dramatist), Prometheus Bounds, 447-451 B.C.

 

  • a generation that has lost touch with its senses.” Rudolf Arnheim

 

 

  • “We have become callously and casually blind. More broadly, you might say we suffer from perceptual pellegra – a decease caused by deficiency of our sensory experience …. A child who enters school today faces a 12 to 20 year apprenticeship in alienation. He learns to manipulate a world of words and numbers, but he does not learn to experience the real world.”

 

  • To become whole again, we must learn to use and enjoy our senses. An education in the arts is an education of the senses. Artists have always known this.
  • Indeed, our culture and society have not created an environment in which we have been encouraged to feel and experience spontaneously. This is specially true in the arts. We have been conditioned and educated to feel that the world of art is a kind of magic circle which only the initiated can penetrate.

 

 

 

  • We are alienated from the arts as a source of personal enjoyment. They are felt to be the remote and mysterious province  of an elite element in our society, of a technically trained coterie of critics who accept without modesty, perhaps even with pride, the designation “arbiters of public taste,” with authority to say  what is art and what is not.

 

  • This subject has to do with the appreciation of the arts as normal human activity – not as puzzles to which few people who label themselves “critics” have the key.
  • Before beginning our formal examination of the arts, some reflection on the role which art has played in all cultures and among all people should reassure us of our right and privilege to enjoy the arts as the very human creations of very human beings like ourselves.

 

The Universality and Importance of Art

 

  • The arts constitute one of the oldest and most important means of expression develop by human beings.
  • Even if we go back to those eras called “prehistoric” because they are older than any periods of which we have written record, we find works to which we give an important place in the roster of the humanities.
  • Basic rooting of art in the human psyche:

-          the seeking and making of external images for inner feelings and emotions

-          Taking shape in the shadows playing along the rough, rocky walls

-          Image from daily activities.

* Our need to give objective, physical form to what we dream, feel, imagine is the source of creativity. The development and use of skills in doing this give us art.

 

The Three Languages and the Arts

 

  • The primary language is built into us as a part of our human heritage. It is built into the very center of our humanity.
  • The secondary language of art is made up of:
  • The convention
  • The traditions
  • The styles
  • The greater the number of works of arts we come to know intimately, the larger our vocabulary of these convention.

 

  • The third language is about the arts. It is the language in which all books on arts are written.

 

 

 

 

Art and Experience

 

  • Art is experience
  • All art demands experience
  • All art involves experience
  • There can be no appreciation of art without experience
  • By experience means the actual doing on something

 

All the world’s a stage
And all the men and women merely players

Shakespeare

 

Poetry is still, as ever, a source of expression of love

 

 

How do I love thee?
Let me count the ways…..

Elizabeth Barrett Brownings

 

Young people of today are more apt to use songs a quotations or as love reference; everyone is familiar with the cliché:
“They’re playing our song”

 

Two Characteristics of experience

 

  • First: The experience of art is personal and individual; it depends on what you are, what you have inside you.
  • Second: Every artistic experience is accompanied by some emotion, or emotional reaction.

Art and Nature

 

  • Art is not nature
  • Art is made by human beings.
  • Artists frequently find their inspiration and subject matter in nature, and artist do use nature as a medium, but art is itself not nature.
  • What is art is not nature; what is nature is not art.
  • A woman must be looked at as a woman, and a painting as a painting.

 

 

 

 

 

The Theoretical basis of Art Appreciation

 

  • Appreciation cannot be taught.
  • Appreciation comes from experience
  • Experience can only be lived
  • Primary material for a study of arts should always be works of art themselves.
  • This course invites you to open your eyes and ears; it is a guide to what you can see and hear in the arts.
  • It is not a substitute for your very personal looking, listening, and responding.

 

Two Kinds of activities of coming to know a work of art in a very personal way, of coming to understand it, of arriving at an interpretation of it:

 

  1. Observing- may be considered as gathering data

 - taking inventory

 - noting what is immediately presented to the senses

 - gathering facts and impressions

 

       2. Responding

            – a kind of synthesizing activity

 

Outline of the Course

 

  1. Background

            a. What is the work of art about? (Subject)

            b. What is it for? (Function)

      2. What is it made of? (Medium)

      3. How is it put together? (Elements and organization)

      4. What is its mood, temper, personality? (Style)

      5. Is it good? (Judgment)

 

Art: Its Meaning and Importance

  • The Nature of Art
  • The Subject of Art
  • The Function of Art

 

The Mediums of the Arts

  • Mediums and Techniques
  • The Artist and His Medium
  • The Artist and His Techniques
  • The Medium of the Visual Arts

 

 

 

 

Culture and Values
How Aesthetics Expresses a World View

 

Art is always a part of the culture from which it is made……………

Understanding culture helps us to understand the aesthetic creations of a period.

 

The power of images

 

Personal Style

Traditional standards of excellence

Political Context

Psychological Content

Emotional Impact

Formal Elements

 

If art is produced, taught and even sold under particular assumptions about quality and attractiveness, it follows that art must be at least as susceptible to external pressures as any other expression or “statement.”

 

Culture creates a shared code

 

Pictorial devices used by artists are called conventions

 

Levels of Meaning

 

Aesthetic objects and events can be seen to have meaning in terms of the following 4 aspects:

 

  • Appearance – The manner in which the work conveys

            meaning based on its physical properties

  • Historical Context – The manner in which the events

            surrounding the work’s creation influenced

            its creation and interpretation

  • Cultural Continuum – The manner in which a work exists

            among other works in a sequence of

            aesthetic and cultural evolution

  • Universal Ideas – The manner in which the work conveys

            philosophical concepts that are universal

            to the human condition

 

Elements of Art

  • Line
  • Value
  • Color
  • Harmonies and Discords
  • Composition – Arrangement of Elements

 

Line is the path made by a moving point

 

Characteristics of line:

Weight

Speed

density

rhythm

 

Value refers to the lightness or darkness of a line or tone

 

Color

The primary colors are: red, yellow, blue

When two primaries are mixed they

Form secondary colors: Purple, green, orange

 

Defining properties of color:

Hue

Value

Tint

 

Harmonies and Discords

The most common color schemes are:

 

Monochromatic

Complementary

Analogous

 

Monochromatic color schemes use one dominant color

Complementary color schemes use colors opposite each other on the color Wheel

Analogous Color Schemes are colors next to each other on the color Wheel

 

The Changing Face of Quality

 

  • Culture is fundamental to how art is viewed

 

Manifestation refers to a visual code that is understood by a certain culture in a particular time

 

Review

 

Art is always a part of the culture from which it is made……………

Understanding culture helps us to understand the aesthetic creations of a period.

Because aesthetic expressions are based on aesthetic concepts and techniques, a formal understanding of these parameters and their development is essential to an appreciation of their value.

 

SUBJECT

 

  • What is the subject of the selection?

 

Think of the storm roaming the sky uneasily

Like a dog looking for a place to sleep in,

Listen to it growling.

 

Think how they must look now, the mangrove keys lying out there unresponsive to the lightning in dark coarse-fibred families…. (Bishop, Elizabeth)

- (“Little Exercise”

 

What is a Subject?

 

  • It is a term used for whatever is represented in a work of art.

 

Not all arts have subjects.

 

  • “Nonobjective” – they do not represent anything. They are what they are without reference to anything in the natural world.

 

Ways of Presenting the Subject

 

  • Realism
  • “no art is ever like nature”
  • Even when artists choose a subject from nature, they change, select, and arrange details to express the ideas they want to make clear.
  • Naturalistic art
  • Abstraction
  • Sometimes an artist becomes so interested in one phase of a scene or a situation that the subject is not shown at all as an objective reality, but only as the artist’s idea of it or feeling about it.

 

Signs and Symbols

  • Signs have a literal quality.
  • Symbols combine them with an abstract or suggestive meaning. It means more than they say.
  • A sign has a one to one reference to what it signifies; it points to something in some context other than its own.
  • A sign or group of signs become symbolic when it expresses more than it strictly signifies. It has literal meaning and suggestive meaning.

 

Beautiful and Ugly Subjects of Arts

  • What are fit subjects for art?
  • Are there certain subjects that are not allowed in art?

Summary

 

  • The subject of a poem may be anything whatever.
  • The subject of a poem is not the same thing as the theme.
  • The meaning of a poem is not the same thing as its subject or its theme.
  • This three statements are true of all the arts. Art may be about anything, although some subjects seem to be more effective in one  medium than another. And the nominal representational subject of a work of art is not the same thing as its theme.
  • Finally, and this is most important, the content of a work of art – its significance, value, and importance to us – is more than its subject and theme. Indeed, it is the very nature and essence of art that it is more than all its parts, that holistically it reaches us in ways that are not merely rational, that bypass the intellectual and affect us in intimate, personal ways.

 

Lessons of Life

 

The secret of life is not just to live but to have something worthwhile to live for.

If you look around, you can always find someone who is worse off than yourself.

Be grateful you are not that person.

If you can find a path with no obstacles, it is probably doesn’t lead to nowhere.

If you expect something for nothing, you are doomed for disappointment.

 

SOURCES OF ART SUBJECTS

 

-         The subjects used in art are usually clear and obvious. They need no explanation other than the work itself.

 

Sources:

  1. Nature
  2. History, including legend, folklore, and current events
  3. Greek and Roman mythology
  4. The Judaeo-Christian tradition
  5. Oriental Sacred Text
  6. Other works of arts

 

Nature

  • Animals
  • People
  • Landscapes

-         The most common inspiration and subject matter for art.

-         Could be the subject and content of both literary and visual arts.

HISTORY

  • All art is conditioned by the historical period in which it is created.
  • The dress, the houses, the manner of living, the thoughts of the period are necessarily reflected in the work of the artist.
  • The use of historical subject is that artists are sensitive to the events taking place in the world around them.

ROMAN AND GREEK MYTHOLOGY

  • Stories from Greek and Roman mythology center on the deities and the heroes.
  • Each of gods and goddesses there clustered many stories.

 

THE JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITION

  • Religion and Art
  • It was during the Renaissance of the 15th centuries that the European artisans became “artists” and conscious of their role in a way that had never been true before ( in the Far East, artists had arrived at this point somewhat earlier).

The Sistine Ceiling

The story of the creation to the time of Noah

  1. Separation of Light from Darkness
  2. Creation of Sun and Moon
  3. Creation of Land Water
  4. Creation Of Adam
  5. Creation of Eve
  6. Temptation and Expulsion
  7. Sacrifice of Noah
  8. The Deluge
  9. The Drunkenness of Noah

THE JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN SOURCES OF ART

  • The Bible

I. Old testaments  (39 books)

  1. History (Genesis –Esther)- The historical books give the story of the Jews from the creation to the Babylonia exile.
  2. Poetry (Job – Song of Songs) – Job is a poetical drama; Proverbs is a collection of wise saying and epigrams. The Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes are respectively, a group of marriage songs and a statement of gently cynical philosophy.
  3. Prophecy (Isaiah – Malachi). The Prophets were not soothsayers, but practical men who judged and interpreted the affairs of their own times. They were patriots, reformers, preachers, and teachers.

 

Where wast thou when I laid the foundation of the Earth?

Declare, if thou hast understanding.

Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest?

Or who hath stretched the line upon it?

Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened?

Or who laid the corner stone thereof;

When the morning stars sang together,

And all the sons of God shouted for joy?”

 

                _ Job 38: 4 – 7

 

 

II. New Testament (27 books)

  1. History. The four Gospels: Matthew, mark, Luke, and John; the Acts of the Apostles.
  2. Letters. The epistles written by Paul and other Christian churches that were just starting in the various parts of the world.
  3. Apocalypse. The revelation of Apostle John

 

ORIENTAL SACRED TEXT

  • Countries of the Orient
  • China
  • Japan
  • India

 - Mahabharata

 - Bhagavad-Gita

 

Subjects derived from other works of arts

  • It is worth observing what the poet adds over and above the description when painting is the source of information.

Introduction to the study of History and Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF HISTORY

 

 

What is History?

 

Etymology of the word:

 

His – Man + Story = Man’s Story

 

Definition

 

Concepts:

Social Science

Study

Important/ significant

Past events

 

Chronicle of important and significant past events that influence the present and shapes the future.

 

Theories of History

 

n      Cyclical theory

n      Historical Nihilism

n      Evolutionary/ Darwinian

n      Marxism

n      Biblical/Christian

 

The next question that we need to address is what are the uses of history?

n      There are many different types of history:

n       cultural history,

n      diplomatic history,

n      narrative history and

n      social history.

 

n      History clearly seeks to explain not just what happened but why it happened when it did.

 

n      For a great period of time people believed that history unfolded according to Divine will.

n      Thinkers such as Thomas Carlyle in the 18th century exalted the role of the individual in the process of history and it was the individual actions of key individuals at key moments in time that created history.

n      Opponents of Carlyle contended that history was determined by forces and laws and by the actions of entire societies.

n      Economists explain historical processes from the stand point of group action that is influenced by economic forces.

n      In the 19th century Karl Marx argued that irresistible economic forces governed the action of human beings and determined the trend of historical events.

n      Marx believed that the shift from one economic stage to another—such as the shift from feudalism to mercantilism to capitalism to what we have now—is attained by upheavals and revolutions.

n      These revolutions occur because the class controlling the means of production eventually resists further progress to maintain its vested interests.

n      Other 19th century thinkers such as Oswald Spengler maintained that civilizations grew like biological organisms and all experienced a spring, summer, fall and winter in their evolution.

n      Finally, Charles Darwin argued that civilizations survived due to the survival of the fittest and Herbert Spencer later created what is known as Social Darwinism out of this line of thinking.

 

Why Study History?

 

n      To know and be informed of the past.

n      To understand the present.

n      To design the future.

 

Branches of Social Sciences that historian consult about the explanation of some phenomenon.

 

n      Economics

n      Anthropology

n      Archeology

n      Geography

n      Political Science

n      Sociology

n      Linguistics

n      Philosophy

 

It is important to understand the cultural stages that human civilization has gone through and throughout history there have been six needs common to all peoples throughout history which for the basis of a “Universal Cultural Pattern”

 

# 1. The need to survive or make a living: all men and women must have food,

       shelter, clothing and the means to provide for their children’s survival.

 

n      #2 The need for law and order and this includes the needs of the community to keep order within their own communities, protect community assets and protect the community from external attack.

 

*    #3 The need for social organization. For numbers 1 and 2 to be achieved there must be a social structure and hierarchy within the community.

 

n      #4 The need for knowledge and learning. Human experience and knowledge are transmitted first orally, and then by means of writing systems.

 

n      #5 The need for artistic self-expression. People need to express themselves creatively, either through cave paintings or by writing books or creating music forms.

 

n      #6 The need for religious expression. All peoples have a need to understand or at least attempt to explain their existences, the natural world around them, and especially death.

 

 

CHAPTER I

 

THE WORLD AND EARLY MAN

 

What Is WORLD HISTORY?

 

  • - it is a description of the changes that have been taken place in the earth’s physical environment since earliest times.
  • - a chronicle of the story of man and all his achievements, including every kind of culture and civilization he has ever established.

 

Topic Outline of the Unit:

 

  • Geography

            – The Universe

            – How the Earth Began?

            – Physical Characteristics of the Earth

            – Natural Resources

            – Climate

            – Influence of Geography on History

            – Geography and the World’s Population

            – Continents of the World

  • The Origin of Man
  • Ancient Civilization

 

THE UNIVERSE

 

  • - a vast space with unknown boundaries.
  • - compose of million of galaxies.
  • - each galaxy is made up of billion of stars, planets, moons, comets, meteorites, and other heavenly bodies.
  • - Milky Way galaxy – solar system is found.

 

GEOGRAPHY AND WORLD HISTORY

  • What is Geography?
  • What are the different areas of Geography?
  • - Physical Geography
  • - Human or Cultural Geography
  • - Economic Geography

 

HOW THE EARTH BEGAN?

  • Theories of Science

 - Nebular Theory  – Kant

                               – Laplace

  • Planetesimal Theory

 - Theory of Little Planets

  • Big Bang

 - 3 degrees Kelvin radiation

 

What is the uniqueness of Earth than that of other planets and heavenly bodies that is found in the Universe?

 

Story of Divine Creation

  • Why Story of Divine Creation?
  • Story written in the Holy Bible

The Bible

  • Compose of:

             Old Testament

            – 39 Books = Genesis – Malachi

            New Testament

            – 27 Books = Matthew – Revelation

 Total Books = 66

 

The Days of Creation

  • Genesis

 Chapter 1

 

In the Beginning – Heaven and Earth = Universe

Formless and desolate= covered with darkness

  • Day 1  - Light
  • Day 2 – Firmament= sky =water above and below were separated
  • Day 3 – Separation of Water and Land (Seas, Oceans /  Earth)
  • Day 4 – 3 great lights (SMS)
  • Day 5 – Air/Sky and Sea Creatures
  • Day 6 – Land Creatures &  MAN

 

 

Earth’s Physical Characteristics

  • Water Forms

            – Oceans

            – Seas

            – Bays

            – Gulf

            – River Systems

  • Land Forms

            – Land Area: 57, 280,000 km2

 

Continents of the World

  1. Asia
  2. Africa
  3. North America
  4. South America
  5. Europe
  6. Australia
  7. Antarctica

 

Other Land Forms

  • Islands

 - Greenland : Largest Island

  • Peninsulas
  • Mountains
  • Hills
  • Plains
  • Plateaus

 

Natural Resources

  • Raw Materials
  • Energy
  • Water
  • Air
  • Land
  • Living Resources

            – plants

            – animals

            – fishes

 

Kinds of Resources

  • Renewable
  • Nonrenewable

 

 

 

 

  • Weather - the temperature and precipitation of a particular place at a particular time.
  • Climate – the average weather conditions of an area over a long period of time.

 

3 Major Climate Zones

  1. Frigid Zones
  2. Temperate Zones
  3. Torrid Zones

 

Changing Climate Conditions

  • “Why the weather  growing wild?”
  • “Greenhouse Effect”
  • “Global Warming”

 

Natural Temperature Modifiers

  • Volcanoes
  • El Nino – Southern Oscillations (ENSO)

            – Long dry season

  • La Nina

             - Long rainy season

  • Brighter Sun

 

How Geography Influenced History?

 

Geography and the World Population

 

  • What is the current trend of population growth?
  • Explain the effects of uncontrolled population growth?
  • How does geography influence population distribution?

July 4, 2010

Advisory to all my students

Filed under: Uncategorized @ 1:14 am and

New lessons in the following subjects will be available next week..Due to hectic schedules for the accreditation, I was not able to post the lessons here…

Economics

World History

Micro/Macroeconomics

Humanities I

January 19, 2010

Reviewer in World History

Filed under: Reviewer in World History @ 7:41 am and

Kabanata 12

PAGBUBUO NG MGA BANSA

  • · Pagbagsak ng piyudalismo

Mga salik sa tuluyang pagbagsak ng piyudalismo

1.        Paglakas ng kapangyarihan ng mga monarko

-          Pangunahing dahilang ng pagbagsak ng piyudalismo

-          Hindi kaya ng mga baron na magorganisa ng hukbo na armado ng kanyon at baril

-          Baron – panginoong piyudal

2.       Paglahok sa krusada

3.       Pagunlad ng mga bayan at lungsod

-          Sumipot ang mga bourgeoisie o mayayamang mangangalakal na ayaw kumilala sa kapangyarihan ng panginoong piyudal.

4.       Pagkaimbaneto ng mga armas.

  • Inglatera

Sinaunang kasaysayan

-        noong 43 P.K. sinakop ng mga Romano ang Inglatera.

-        tinitirahan ng mga Celtic.

-        umunlad sa kamay ng mga Romano.

-        sinakop ng Jute,  Angle at Saxon noong napabayaan ng Roma

-        noong ika-9 na siglo nilusob sila ng mga Viking at Danish.

-        sinagupa ng Alfred the Great, hari ng kaharian ng Wessex ang mga Dane

-        kinilala ng Inglatera ang kapangyarihan ni Alfred the Great.

Alfred the Great

-          Nagging hari ng inglatera mula 871 hanggang 899.

-          Tinawag na ang dakila dahil sa natatanging kakayahan bilan monarko.

-          Nailigtas ang inglatera sa mga dayuhang mananakop

-          Tinipon ang batas sa isang koda , ang kodang Anglo-Saxon.

-          Anglo Saxon Chronicle – nagsasalaysay sa mga naganap sa Inglatera.

Kasaysayan

-          Taong 1000- ang inglatera a nagsimulang magtatag ng isang malakas at sentralisadong pamahalaan.

-          1066- namatay ang hari, inangkin ni William, duke ng Normandy ang karapatan sa trono

-          Ipinagkaloob kay Harold ng Wessex ang trono

-          Tinawid ni William ang trono at tinalo si Harold sa makasayasayang labanan sa Hastings, at umani ng titulong “ Ang Mananakop ”.

-          Araw ng Pasko 1066- pinatungan si William ng korona bilang bagong hari ng Inglatera.

Haring William

-          Namuno sa Inglatera mula 1066 hanggang 1087.

-          Inilaan ang ikaanim na bahagi ng bansa para sa kanyang sarili at ang natira ay hinati-hati niya sa mga baron.

-          Pinasumpa ang mga baron ng katapatan para kay King William.

-          Hinati ang Inglatera sa mga counties na pinamamahalaan ng mga opisyan ng hari, na hango sa panahon ng mga Anglo-Saxon.

-          Domesday Book- isang survey  na ginagawang basehan sa pagtataas ng buwis.

-          Bawat panginoong piyudal ay direktang pinasumpa ng katapatan sa kanya.

William Rufus o Henry I

-          Anak ni Haring William.

-          Namuno sa inglatera mula 1100 hanggang 1135.

-          Nagtataag ng departamentong Exchequer upang pangasiwaan ang pinansya ng gobierno.

Henry II

-          Apo ni Henry I, anak ng kanyang anak na si Matilda..

-          Nagtatag ng sandataang lakas na binubuo ng mga karaniwang tao upang magsilibi sa hari at ang mga mayayaman ay pinagbabayad nalang nito upang pambayad sa propesyonal na hukno.

-          Namuno mula 1154 hanggang 1189.

-          Pinairal ang Common Law na iisang batas para sa lahat.

-          Ang common law hanggang sa kasalukuyan ay umiiral sa Estados Unidos at sa Gran Britanya.

-          Circuit judges- tawag sa mga hukom na lumilibot sa dependidong ruta na itinadhana ni Henry II.

-          Nalinang ang sistemang Jury.

-          Jury- taong nagdadala sa mga taong akusado sa hukom ng palasyo.

-          Grand Jury- humuhusga sa nagkasala

-          Petit- tinatawag sa ingles na trial jury..

-          Inilipat ang hukom ng klerigo sa hukom ng hari.

-          Tinutulan ito ni Arsobispo Thomas Becket ng Canterbury at naging kaaway ni Henry II.

-          Pinaslang ng isang kabalyero ni Henry si Arsobispo Thomas Becket.

-          Itinanggi ni Henry na siya ay may kinalaman sa pagpaslang.

-          Dahil sa pangyayaring ito, itinigil ni Henry ang paglulunsad ng mga reporma sa sistemang legal.

-          Bago namatay si Henry naabot ng Inglatera ang kanyang kaluwalhatian dahil sa lawak ng hawak niyang teritoryo sa Pransiya.

-          Naging panginoong piyudal din si Henry ng halos kalahati ng kanlurang Pransiya.

Richard ang Pusong Leon

-          Anak ni Henry II, na hinalinhanan siya noong siya ay namatay noong 1189.

-          Nakilala sa tawag na ang Pusong Leon.

-          Napabantog dahils a paglulunsad ngkrusada laban sa mga Muslim .

-          Hindi naging mahusay na pinuno.

-          Kinabagutan ang mga kaakibat na problem sa bansa.

-          Sa loob ng sampung taong pamumuno, anim na buwan lamang ang inilagi niya sa Inglatera

-          Binuwisan ang mga Ingles upang matustusan ang kanyang pakikipagsapalaran sa banal na lupainat maisampa ang pantubos sa kanya nang siya’y mabihag.

-          Napatay noong 1199 habang siya ay nakikipagsapalaran sa Pransya.

Haring John

-          Kapatid ni Richard at anak ni Henry II.

-          Humalili kay Richard.

-          Nawala ang lupaing nasakop ng kanyang ama.

-          Salabanan sa Pransiya tinalo siya ni Philip Augustus kung saan nakuha nitong huli ang Normandy, Britany,  Maine, at Anjou.

-          Naghari mula 1199 hanggang 1216.

-          Sa kanyang pamumuno nagkaroong ng mahabang serye ng labanan na wala naman siyang napagtagumpayan. .

-          Nakipag away din siya kay Papa Innocent III tungkol sa pagatatalaga ng isang Arsobispo ng Canterbury ngunit wala siyang nagawa kundi magparaya.

-          Nakipaglaban sa mga maharlikang ingles hanggang ang mga ito ay magalsa.

-          Noong 1215 pinilint ng mga baron si haring John ang inhandang Magna Carta.

Magna Carta

-          Sa dokumentong ito , kinikilala ng hari ang karapatan ng mga baron at kanilang dito ang karapatan sa makatarungang paglilitis.

-          Ang orihinal ana layunin ng carta ay bigyang proteksiyon ang karapatan ng mga baron at maharlika datapwa’t may mga probisyon dito na tumutukoy sa karapatan ng mga karaniwang tao at mga mahihirap, at ang mga karapatang ito ay itinuturing na pinakamahalagang bahagi ng Magna Carta.

-          Nalinaw nito na ang hari ay nasa ilalim ng batas.

-          Naging pundasyon ng Bill of Rights sa kasalukuyang panahon.

Edward I

-          Namuno mula 1239 hanggang 1307.

-          Sinikap na ipailalim ang buong kapuluan sa ilalim ng isang pamahalaan.

-          Noong 1284 sinakip niya ang Wales.

-          Sinikap na sakupin ang Scotland ngunit nahirapan siyang talunin ang mga scot.

-          Nangailangan ng malaking halaga para sa mga pakikidigma at para sa mga pinsalang naidulot nito kayaa pinagtibay ang Parliamento.

-          Pinulong ang mga maharlika at tauhan ng simbahan at inuotos sa sheriff( local na opisyal ng batas) na magdaos ng eleksiyon para sa kanilang nasasakupan.

-          Humirang siya ng dalawang burgess( mamamayan) at dalawang bourough( baying napagkalooban ng carta).

-          Ang grupong ito ang bumuo ng sinasabing modelong parliamento, dahil ipinares dito ang sumunod na parliament.

-          Dumating ang panahon na bumitaw sa parliament ang simbahan.

-          Ang mga kinatawan ng maharlika ang bumuo ng House of Lords.

-          Ang inihalal na kabalyero at burgess ang bumuo ng House of Commons.

-          Ang House of Commons ang tunay na mga kinatawan ng bayan dahil sila ang tinig ng nakararaming taumbayan.

-          Nagkaroon ng bang pagkilos ang parliament at naisipan nilang tumangi sa kahilingan ng hari hanggang hindi nito itinutuwid ang kanyang pagkakamali, ang pamamaraang ito ay tinatawag na Redress of Grievances.

-          Bumabalangkas din ng mga panukala ang parliamento at tinawag nila itong Bills.

-          Ang panukalang ito ang nagiging acts or statutes kapag nilagdaan o pinagtibay ng hari.

-          Dahil dito ang parliamento ay naging sangay-tagapagpatas o lehislatura.

-          Sa maraming bansa ang parliamento ay may kahulugan na pinakamataas na batasan.

-          Dahil sa Inglatera nagsimula ang parliamento, tinawag itong “Ina ng Parliamento”.

Wars of the Roses

-          Noong 1445, dalawang pamilya ang nagagawan sa trono ng Inglatera—ang House of York at House of Lancaster.

-          Ang kanilang pagdidigmaan ay tinawag na wars of the roses dahil ang ginagamit na sagisag ng house of York ay puting rosas at pulang rosas naman sa house of Lancaster.

-          Noong 1485 si Henry Tudor ng Houseof Lancaster ang naluklok sa trono bilang Henry VII.

-          Pinagisa ni Henry VII ang dalawang pamilya sa pamamagitan ng pagpapakasal sa tagapagmana ng house of York na si Elizabeth at kanyang sinimulan ang dinastiyang Tudor.

-          Namuno ang dinastiyang Tudor hanggang 1603.

-          Umunlad ang kulturang ingles sa ilalim ng mga Tudor at kinilala ang kanilang liderato sa Europa.

-          Sa pagtatapos ng pamumuno ng mga Tudor ang Inglatera ay isa nang mkalakas na bansa.

-          Nabuksan ang kamalayan ng mga tao na sila ay ingles, n asila ay may sariling bansa at mga pinunong maipagmamalaki.

  • Pransiya

-          Noong huling bahagi ng taong 900 ang Pransiya ay tumutukoy lamang sa isang maliit na seksiyon sa palibot ng Paris.

Haring Capetian

-          Noong 987 ang huling haring Carolingian ng Pransiya ay namatay nang walang tagapagmana.

-          Pinili ng asamblea ng mga maharlika si Hugh Capet, Konde ng Paris, bilang hari

-          Ang linya ng mga hari na pinasimulan ni Hugh Capet ay tinawag na Capetian at ang mga ito’y namuno sa Pramsiya sa loob ng 300 taon.

-          Pinamunuan ni Capet ang isa lamang maliit na rehiyon sa palibot ng Paris na tinawag na Ile-de France.

-          Ang ile ay isang salitang pranses na ang ibig sabihin ay pulo.

-          Tinanggihan pa din ng mga basalyo ang kapangyarihan ng hari.

-          Ang mga lupain sa Pransiya ay pinamumunuan ng makapangyarihang panginoong Piyudal.

-          Hindi hinati hati ng mga haring Capetian ang kaharian sa kanilang mga anak, sa pinakamatandang anak na lalaki lamang ang nagmana ng kaharian.

-          Sa sistemang ito sa loob ng 300 taon nangibabaw sil asa loob ng ibang pamilyang maharlika.

-          Ipinakita ng mga haring Capetian na higit silang malakas kaysa sa mga maharlika.

Louis VI o si Louis ang Mataba

-          Unang nagpamalas sa mga Capetian ng kagalingan.

-          Namuno mula 1108 hanggang 1137.

-          Tatlong paraan ng mga Capetian

1.       Pagpapalawak ng mga teritoryo ng kaharian.

2.       Pagtatatag ng isang malakas na sentralisadong pamahalaan.

3.       Pagtataas ng kita ng pamahalaan sa pamamagitan ng pagbubuwis.

-          Nagpapakasal ang mga haring Capetian sa mga anak ng makapangyarihang panginoong piyudal  upang mapalawak ang teritoryong nasasakupan.

Philip II o Philip Augustus

-          Apo ni Louis VI

-          Nabawi ang lupain ng Pransiya sa Inglatera.

-          Noong 1328 nang mamatay ang huling hari ng Capetian, tanging ang Aquitaine at Gascony na lamang ang hawak na lupain ng Inglatera sa Pransiya.

Louis IX o St. Louis

-          Nagtatag ng sistema sa paghuhukom.

-          Ipinagbawal niya ang mga pribadong digmaan at pag-uusig sa pamaamgitan ng paghahamok.

-          Namuno mula 1226 hanggang 1270.

-          Tahimik na tao at isang magiting na krusador.

-          Dalawang krusada ang kanyang pinamunuan:

1.       Noong 1248

2.       Noong 1270 kung saan siya’y namatay sa isang salot.

-          Dahil sa ipinamalas niyang mga banal na Gawain siya ay idineklarang santo ni Papa Boniface VIII noong 1297.

Philip IV o Philip the Fair

-          Apo ni Louis IX

-          Namuno sa Pransiya mula 1270 hanggang 1314.

-          Pinalawak ang teritoryo sa pamamagitan ng pagpapakasal sa tagapagmana ng Navarre at Champagne.

-          Noong 1302 tinanggap niya angkauna unahang pagkakataon ng  mga karaniwang tao sa Estates General o Parliamento ng Pransiya.

-          Sa pasimula ang Estates General ay binubuo  lamang ng kinatawan ng unang dalawang sector ng lipunan- ang unang Estado ng binubuo ng mga klerigo at ang pangalawang estado na binubuo ng mga maharlika.

-          Ang pangatlong sector ng lipunan ay ang pangatlong estado na binubuo ng mga karaniwang mamamayan.

-          Sa pagsapit ng 1300 ang pransiya ay isa nang mjalakas na bansa kung saaang makapangyarihan ang haring Capetian.

-          Ngunit sa tatlong anak ni Philip the Fair ay walang naiwan na lalaking anak na magmamamana ng trono kaya noong 1328 nagwakas ang paghahari ng mga Capetian.

Isandaan Taong Digmaan

-          Noong 1337 inangkin ni Edward III hari ng Inglatera, ang rono ng Pransiya at ito ang naging simula ng isandaan taong idgmaaan na tumagal hanggang 1453.

-          Noong 1429, nilusob ng mga ingles ang Orleans at batay sa takbo ng labanan ay susuko na ang mga pranses.

-          Sumipot an glider na lubha nilang kailangan, siya ay isang batang-batang dalaga na ang pangalan ay Joan of Arc.

-          Wala siyang karanasan sa pagdidigma gunit siya ay nagkaroon ng pangitain na isinugo siya ng Diyos upang pangunahan ang mga pranses at palayain ang pransiya.

-          Binigyan ng hukbo si Joan of Arc at dahil sa matibay na paniniwala ni Joan napalakas niya ang espiritu ng mga pranses at kanilang naitaboy ang ingles sa Orleans noong 1429.

-          Sa loob ng isang taon, bumagsak si Joan sa hukom ng mga Ingles at siya ay idineklarang erehe at mangkukulam ng simbahan at ginawaran ng parusang kamatayan sa pamaamagitan ng pagsunog ng buhay.

Kahalagahan ng nagawa ni Joan of Arc

-          Ang dalagang ito na hindi nakapag-aral ang siyang pumukas sa pambansang espirity o kamalayan ng mga Pranses.

-          Matapos ang pagkamatay ni Joan hindi na nagtagumpay ang mga ingles at pagkawala sa kanila ng Bordeaux noong 1453.

-          Nagwakas din ang isandaang taong digmaan.

-          Walang naiwan sa kanila sa kontinente maliban ang Calais sa hilaga.

-          Bago magtapos ang siglo nagkaroong ng lakas ng loon si Charles VIII na angkinin ang isang bahagi sa Italya.

Ang Simbahan at Pransiya

-          Hidwaan sa pagitan ni Pope Boniface VIII at ni Haring Philip IV noong 1294, ipinagutos  ni haring Philip sa mga klerigo na magbayad ng buwids sa pambansang tesoreriya.

-          Tumutol si pope Boniface at bilang pagtugon ditto ipinagbawal naman ni Philip IV ang paglalabas ng Pransiya ng pera o mga mamahaling bato.

-          Nagging sagabal ito sapagpapadala ng mga klerifo sa kinagawiang bayatin at suportang pera sa Roma.

-          Dahil dito nagparaya  ang papa sa kgustuhan ng Hari.

Babylonian Captivity

-          Pagkamatay ni Boniface nagawan ng paraan ni Philip IV na maging papa ang isa sa kanyang tagapayong Pranses.

-          Mula sa Roma inilipat ng bagong papa ang sentro ng papado sa Avignon.

-          Nagtagal ng pitumpung taon na ang Avignon ang centro ng papado.

-          Sa kasaysayan ng papado mula 1305 hanggang 1337 ay tinawag na Babylonian captivity.

-          Hango ang panahong ito nang ang hebrei ay nagging bihag ng babylonia.

-          Isang malungkot na yugto ng papado.

Kulturang Pranses

-          Troubadour- tawag sa mga makata ng Provence sa timog Pransiya

-          Ang troubadour ay nagpasimula ng isang kulusang pampanitikan noong ik-11 siglo na nagkaroong ng malakng impluwensiya sa buong kanlurang Europa.

-          Sa loob ng isandaan at limampung taon inawit ng mga troubadour ang kanilang mga nilikahang berso bago ito tuluyang pinalis ng Albigensian Crusade.

  • · Espanya

-          Sa loob ng maraming siglo nakipaglabanan ang mga krisyanong portages at kastila upang itabaoy sa labas ng mga bansa ang mga Moor o Muslim.

-          Makalipas ang 300 taon ang mgakaharian ng espanya ay nabuklod nang magkapangasawahan sina Isabela ng Castile at Ferdinand ng Aragon.

-          Sa ilalim ng kanilang pamumuno naitaboy nila ang mga Moor sa espanya.

-          Naging  isang bansa ang Espanya.

Ang Espanya noong ika-16 na siglo

-          Nasa ilalim ng mga Muslim.

-          Naglunsad ng mga Espanol at Kristyano ang Reconquista sa kagustuhang mabawi  ang kanilang lupain.

-          Noong 1400 tanging Granada na lamang ang nasa ilalim ng mga Muslim.

-          Ang kristyanong kaharian ay binuo ng Castile, Aragon at Navarre.

-          Napag-isa ang mga kahariang ito noong ika-16 na siglo at ang Espanya ay kinilala bilang nangununang estado sa Europa at nanatili sa kalagayang ito sa loob ng isang siglo.

Ferdinand at Isabella

-          Si Isabella ang tagapagmana ng Castile at si Ferdinand naman ang tagapagmana ng Aragon, at ang kanilang pagaasawahan ang unang hakbang sa pagiisa ng Espanya.

-          Pinasigla nila ang Reconquista upang mapalayas ang mga Moor sa bansa.

-          Noong 1492 nasakop nina Ferdinand at Isabela ang Granada at ito ang naging hudyat ng pagwawakas ng kapangyarihang muslim sa bansa.

-          Nagtagumpay ang kilusang reconquista.

-          Masigasig sa pagpapanatili ng katolisismo sa bansa.

-          Iniutos ang kombersiyong ng mga Hudyo at Muslim bilang Kristyano na nagnanais tumira sa espanya.

-          Ang paghihigpit na ito a nagpahina sa ekonomiya ng espanya.

Naging makapangyarihan ang mga pinunong Ruso

-          Nahubog ang Rusya ang isa ng malakas at sentralisadong pamahalaan.

-          Walang parliament at magna carta na naglilimita sa kapangyarihan ng kanilang mga pinuno.

Ivan the Great o Ivan III

-          Namuno mula 1462 hanggang 1505.

-          Isang dakilang duke ng Moscow.

-          1480 natapos niya ang pamumuno ng mga mongol sa Rusya.

-          Hinarap din niya ang kahariang Polish- Luthiania, at nabawi nya ang ilang rehiyon sa hanggan.

Ivan the Terrible o Ivan IV

-          Nooong 1552 nasakop ng mga kawal na Ruso ang Kazan sa silangan, na isang pangunahing lungsod ng mga Mongol.

-          Ginamit ng dalawang Ivan ang titulong Tsar na ang ibig sabihin ay Caesar.

-          Tinawag nila ang kanilang sarili na mga bagong Emperador na Kristyanong Orthodox.

Ang naantalang kaisahan ng Alemanya at Italya

-          Noong 850 P.K. ang mga tao sa silangang Pransiyaay tinawag ang kanilang mga sarili na Aleman.

-          Ang kanilang wika ay iba sa sinasalitang wika sa kanlurang Pransiya.

Henry Fowler

-          Isang maharlikang Saxon na naging hari ng silangang Frankland.

Otto the Great

-          Anak ni Henry Fowler.

-          Nagging isa sa pinakamakapangyarihang sa Alemanya.

-          Tinalo ang Hungarian sa Batalya ng Lechfield noong 955.

-          Inakalang pinakamalakas na hari sa Europa.

-          Nakagawa ng pagkakamali at hinangad na sakupin ang italya.

-          Noong 962 si Otto ay lumusob sa tangway ng Italya at hiningi sa papa na siya ay koronahan bilang emperador-romano.

-          Ang salapi nila ay ginamit lamang sa mga digmaan upang makuha ang italya.

-          Tinawag ang kanilang lupain na Banal na imperyo kahit ito ay hindi imperyo.

-          Muling nagging makapangyarihan ang mga maharlika sa kani-kanilang mga lupain.

-          Humiling ang mga maharlika na makapamili ng kanilang mga pinuno kaya sila ay tinawag na elector.

Frederick Barbarossa

-          Nagtatag ng dinastiyang Hohenstaufen.

-          Umaaasa na mapantayan ang kasikatan ni Charlemagne.

-          Kinoronhan bilang emperador ng Roma noong 1155.

-          Ang italya ay nahati sa mga papal states.

-          Noong 1800 nabuo ang mga bansang Alemanya at Italya.

Kabanata 13: Ang Renaissance sa Europa

Renaissance
- isang salitang pranses na ang ibig sabihi’y “muling pagsilang”.

Isang kilusang sekular. Ang pangunahing interes nito ay labas sa saklaw ng relihiyon. “Indibidwalismo” ang binigyang pansinng Renaissance.

Italya- sa siyudad na ito nagsimula ang Renaissance.

Este- pamilya na naghahari sa Ferrera nang sumikat ang mga pintor na sina Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, atp.

Medici- ang pamilya na sumoporta kay MichelAngelo at Donatello.

Humanitas- ibig o nangangahulugang kultura.

Papa Pious II- iskolar na humanista bago naging papa.

Francisco Petrarca- makata ng Arezzo sa Italya na nanguna sa mga unang humanista.

Cicero at Vergil-  mga romanomng manunulat na binabasa  ni Petrarch

Cazioner- koleksiyon  nga nga tula ni Petrarch

Latin- wikang gamit ni Petrarch sa pagsulat.

Giovani Boccacio- kaibigan  ni Petrach na nagsulat ng mag tula at tuluyan.

Leonardo da Vinci- pinakadakilang pintor ng lahat ng panahon.

Florence- siyudad na nangunasa sining sa panahon ng Renaissance.

Giotto di Bondone- nakaguhit na mga buhay at gumagalaw

Frescoes- pagguhit sa basang palitada.

Perspective- paraan ng pagpipinta na parang totoo.

Michelangelo- nagpinta ng frescoes sa mga pader at kisame sa Sistine Chapel ng Vatican.

La Pieta- Obra Maestra sa iskultura ni Michelangelo

Raphael- tinaguriang pinakadakilang pintor ng Renaissance.

Sistine Madonna- obra maestra ni Raphael.

Venice- kapanabayan ng ng Florence bilang sentro ng sining

Bellini- kilala sa paggamit  ng matitingkad na kulay sa pagpipinta.

Kabanata 14: Ang Repormasyon

Repormasyon – ang malaking pagbabago sa pananaw ng tao tungkol sa relihiyon.

Simony – sistema ng pagbebenta at pagbili ng posisyon sa Simbahan.

Francisco & Dominicano – mga repormista sa loob ng Simbahan noong ika- 13 siglo.

John Wycliffe – Propesor sa Unibersidad ng Oxford ; Tinuligsa ang mga maling sistema ng Simbahan.

John Huss – naging tagasunod ni Wycliffe ; isang paring Katoliko sa Bohemia .

Savonarola – isang mongheng Dominicao na taga-Italya, ang nangaral sa Florence .

Erasmus – tinuligsa ang mga klerigo sa kanilang pakunwaring kabanalan at pagsamba sa mga imahen.

The Praise of Folly – dito’y sinabi ni Erasmus na maraming mga maling sistema ang dapat ituwid sa Simbahan.

Philip IV – mula sa Pransya ; pinilit niya ang papa na lisanin ang Roma at manirahan sa Avignon . Ito ay tinatawag na Babylonian Captivity na tumagal ng 65 taon.

Great Schism – ang talagang naghati sa kapapahan noong 1378.

Johann TetzelDominicanong monghe na lumibot sa Hilagang Alemanya.

Martin Luther – Propesor ng Teolohiya sa Unibersidad ng Wittenberg .

Ninety-five Theses – talaan ng mga pahayag ni Luther.

1521 – taon kung kailan itiniwalag si Luther sa Simbahang Katoliko.

Edict of Worms – nagbabawal sa paglalathala at pagbibili ng mga isinulat ni Luther.

Protestante – itinawag sa mga Lutheranismo

1546- taon ng mamatay si Luther.

John Calvin – abogado at iskolar na Pranses

Predestination – nangangahulugan na pinili na ng Diyos ang maliligtas at ang desisyon na ito ay din a magbabago.

The Institutes of the Christian Religion – aklat kung saan mababasa ang mga aral ni Calvin.

Presbyters – nga nakakatanda na inihalal din ng mga mananampalataya.

John Knox – Scot na disipulo ni Calvin.

Tagapagtanggol ng Pananampalataya – titulong ginawad ng Papa kay Henry VIII.

Act of Supremacy – sa ilalim ng batas na ito, si Henry VII ay kinilala bilang pinuno ng Simbahan sa Inglatera.

Society of Jesus – itinatag ni St. Ignacius Loyola.

Lay people – karaniwang tao.

KABANATA 15: PAGLAKAS NG MGA ESTADO SA EUROPA

1.) PAGLAGANAP NG KAPANGYARIHAN NG ESPANYA SA PANAHON NI CHARLES V

Ferdinand at Isabella

Isabel

Juan

Juana

Catherine

Haring Manuel I ng Portugal

Philip the fair

Tagapagmana ni Emperador Maximillan

Margaret ng Austria na anak ni Emperador

Maximillan

Haring Henry VIII ng Inglatera

Lumaganap ang kapangyarihan ng Espanya sa Europa dahil sa pagpapakasal ng anak nina Ferdinand at Isabela sa mga miyembro ng mga namumunong pamilya sa Europa.

A.)   Charles I (1516-56) at Philip II (1656-98)

Ang dalawang hari na ito ay naging dahilan ng pagtagumpay ng Espanya. Sila ay miyembro ng pamilyang Hapsburg ng Austria .

CHARLES I:

Siya’y anak nila Philip the Fair at Reyna

Juana ,na naging hari ng Espanya noong 1516

sa gulang na 16 na taon at siya’y tinaguriang Banal na Emperador Romano Charles V.

ANIM NA PINAMAHALAAN NI CHARLES V BILANG TERITORYO NG ESPANYA:

America,Sardinia, Milan , Netherlands ,

Franche(Isang lalawigan sa pagitan ng   Pransiya at Switzerland ) at Kaharian ng Naples at Sicily

MGA LUNGDOD NG BANAL NA IMPERYONG ROMANO NA   NAWALA SA PAKIKIPAGDIGMAAN:

Mets, Verdun ,at Toul

MGA PINAGTANGGOL NI CHARLES V:

Ipinagtanggol niya ang Europa laban sa nananakop na mga Turkong Ottoman, at sa Alemanya ang Simbahang Katoliko laban sa Protestanteng Prinsipe.

FERDINAND:

Siya ang batang kapatid ni Charles V na naging hari ng Hungary at Bohemia at siya ang tumuloy sa titulong “Emperador ng Banal na Imperyo Romano”.

Si Charles V ay ipinanganak na Flanders at nagsasalita ng wikang Pranses ngunit siya’y isang hari ng Espanya at dahil doon nag-alsa ang mga tao laban sa kanya dahil itinuturing siya ng isang dayuhan pero kahit na ganito itinaguyod niya ang Espanya hanggang sa araw ng pagbaba niya sa pwesto.

PHILIP II :

Siya’y pinanganak at nag-aral sa Espanya at pinagmamalaki niya ang pagiging Espanol niya.Siya ang anak ni Charles V na nagmana ng posisyon niya. Minana niya ang pamamahala sa lugar na pinamunuan ng kanyang ama pati na rin sa Kanlurang Indies ,Aprika at Pilipinas.

TATLONG ISYUNG PINAG-UKULAN NG PANSIN NI

PHILIP II:

Ang kahinaan ng pamahalaang sentral.

Ang problema hinggil sa relihiyon.

Ang problemang pinansiyal bunga ng digmaan at mga pag-aalsa.

*  Holy inquisition:

Ito ay naging paraan upang pagbuyuhin ang kanilang pagsupil sa mga erehe.

*  Mga nadagdag sa Imperyo ng  Espanya na isa sa mga Kolonya ng Espanya noong panahon ni Haring Philip II: Asya,Aprika,Timog Amerika

*   Portugal:

Ito’y isa sa mga tinaguriang probinsya o lalawigan ng Espanya at ito’y nakalaya sa Espanya makalipas ng 60 na taon.

*  Francis Drake:

Siya ang namumuno sa mga Ingles na sumalakay sa mga Kastila na hindi sinawata ni Reyna Elizabeth.

*   Invincible Armada:

Ito ang barkong ginamit pandigma ng Espanya .

*     Calvinismo:

Ito ang relihiyon ng mga taga-hilagang Netherlands .

*     Katoliko Romano:

Ito ang relihiyon ng mga taga-timog Netherlands .

*      William the Silent:

Siya ang namuno sa rebelyon laban sa mga Kastila at siya ang nagmay-aari ng pinakamalawak na lupain sa hilagang Netherlands at Prinsipe ng Orange .

*       Orange:

Ito’y isang maliit na estado sa Timog Pransiya.

*       Unyon ng Utrecht :

Ito’y kinabibilangan ng pitong lalawigan Protestant e ng lalawigan ng dutch Netherlands o kilalang Netherlands ngayon.

*       Privateer

Ito’y ang pribadong barko na ginamit ng mga Olandes upang      makipaglaban sa mga Kastila.

*        Kasunduan sa Westphalia :

Ito ang nagbigay wakas sa tatlumpung taong digmaan na kung saan kinilala ang kalayaan ng hilagang Netherlands .

*         Austrian Netherlands :

Ito ang kasalukuyan Belgium na dating sinakop ng mga Kastila.

·                  Philip II:

Siya ang anak ni Charles V na naging tagapagmana niya,noong panahon niya siya ay nagkaproblema sa relihiyon sa pagitan ng moor at hudyo at noong panahon niya nagkaroon ng digmaan at ng siya ay mamatay maraming lugar na kanyang sinakop ang siyang napalaya.

Kabanata 15 – 3. Lumakas ang Rusya sa tulong ng mahuhusay na pinuno

Panahon ng Ligalig – malawakang kaguluhan na dinanas ng Rusya sa pagtatapos ng ika-16 na siglo dahil sa pagbagsak ng pamahalaan na nagwakas noong 1913

Mikhail Romanov – napagkasunduan ng Asembleya na hirangin bilang tsar

–          naging isang dakilang imperyo ang Rusya

–          apo si Peter I o Peter the Great

Peter the Great – kilala sa pangalan na Peter I

–          apo ni Mikhail Romanov

–          ­determinadong gawing malakas at modernong estado ang Rusya

–          tinanggap sa Rusya ang mga Europeong iskolar, mga artisano, at mga inhinyero na nagdala ng moda at kaugalian sa mataas na antas ng lipunang Ruso na tumulong naman na magtatag ng mga institusyong pang-agham, baguhin ang kalendaryo at alpabeto, at magsimula ng mga  bagong industriya

–          naniwala sa absolutismo

–          tinanggal ang lahat ng bakas ng nagsasariling pamahalaang lokal

–          ipinailalim ang kapangyarihan sa Russian Orthodox Church

–          itinatag ang pundasyong St. Petersburg (Leningrad) na kanyang naagaw sa Sweden at ginawang rehiyon sa dalampasigang Baltic

Great Northern War – pag-aaway-away ng mga bansa sa hilagang Europa na napagtagumpayan ni Peter at mga kaalyadong bansa (Denmark, Poland at Saxony) na nagwakas noong 1721

Catherine the Great – kilala sa pangalan na Catherine

–          ipinagpatuloy ang sinimulan ni Peter

–          prinsesang Aleman na napangasawa ng tagapagmana ng kaharian ng Rusya

–          matalino, may kakayahang mamuno, ngunit mahigpit

–          ginawang pranses ang wika ng maharlika sa halip na Russian

–          napagtagumpayan ang polisiyang westernisasyon ni Peter na mapalawak ang teritoryong sakop ng Rusya sa pamamagitan ng pagpapabuti sa mga paaralan at pagpapairal ng bagong batas

–          pinahintulutan na ipagpatuloy ang pambubusabos sa mga pesante

–          nabigyan ng malayang daanan patungo sa Black Sea at ng karapatan na protektahan ang mga kristiyanong naninirahan sa loob ng Imperyong Ottoman

–          nasakop ang malaking bahagi ng Poland at ang Crimea na nagbunsod ng ikalawang pakikidigma sa mga Turko

4.Naging makapangyarihang estado ang Prusya

Pinunong Hohenzollern – napakalawak ang kanilang teritoryo at kapangyarihan sa pamamagitan ng diplomasya

– tinanghal na mga pangunahing pinunong Protestanteng mga estadong Aleman

– kinilalang hari ng Prusya

Frederick William I – ikalawang hari ng Prusya

– hindi naibigan ang ugaling Pranses

– matipid, na ang salapi ay ginagamit niya sa pagpapalakas ng Prusya

– dinoble ang bilang ng hukbo na kinilalang pinakamalakas at pinakamahusay sa Europa

– may pambihirang ugali, mabagsik sa pagdidisiplina, na ang palasyo’y tinatrato niyang parang kwartel ng mga sundalo, kaya’t tinawag na Sarhentong Hari

– nagpaplano ng maayos kaya’t naayos ang serbisyo sibil, napaunlad ang kalakalan at industriya, at napagbuti ang pangungulekta ng buwis

– naniwala sa kahalagahan ng edukasyon kaya naglabas ng dikrito na nag-uutos sa mga magulang na papasukin ang mga anak

Dakilang Elektor – ama ni Frederick I

– ginaya ang palasyo ng Versailles ni Louis XIV at pinuno ng mamahaling kagamitan na hindi naman nagustuhan ng kanyang anak (Frederick I) kaya’t ipinagbili nito ang magagarbong kagamitan at muebles ng palasyo

Postdam Guardsisang pamosong koleksyon na labis na pinagkagastusan ni Frederick I

– ang pamimili o pangingidnap ng matatangkad na sundalo para sa hukbo

Frederick the Greatkilala bilang Frederick II

– anak ni Frederick I, apo ng kilalang Dakilang Elektor

– walang interes sa pulitika at military, mahilig magsulat ng tula, tumugtog ng plauta, at magbasa ng pilosopiya dahil dito’y tinawag na Great Fritz ng mga Prussian at kinilala ng mundo na The Great

– dakilang lider-militar at estadistang Hohenzollern, at mahusay na administrador

– sumulat ng maraming aklat kabilang dito ang kasaysayan ng Bradenburg at aklat tungkol sa mga tungkulin ng isang pinuno

– sinakop ang Silesia, na isang lalawigan ng Austria na mayaman sa lupang sakahan at sa deposito ng bakal, at ang mayorya ng populasyon ay mga Aleman (1740)

Maria Theresanaging pinuno ng Austria

– ang mga tao ay hindi nasiyahan sa kanyang pamumuno dahil sa Pragmatic Sanction

Pragmatic Sanctionsinuportahan ng maraming bansa sa Europa ang Hapsburg, Austria na may malawak na teritoryo sa ilalim ni Maria Theresa

– nasaid ang kaban ng bayan dahil sa kampanya nito para malagdaan

War of the Austrian Succesionang sunud-sunod na digmaan na nagsimula nang sakupin ni Frederick the Great ang Silesia, na tumagal hanggang 1748

–     ang Pransiya, Bavaria at Saxony ay pumanig sa Prusya samantalang angn Gran Britanya, Rusya, at Dutch Netherlands ay pumanig naman sa Austria

Kabanata 17: Pagkabuo ng Latin ng Amerika

Si Hernando Cortes ang(conquistador) ang unang nakaharap sa hari ng mga Aztec na si Montezuma, noong Nob. 8, 1519.

1. Sinakop ng mga Europeo ang Amerika
^_^ kasama ni Christopher Columbus ang 1,500 na mga   kastila.
^_^ inilatag nito ang pundasyon ng kasalukuyang Latin Amerika.

Eksplorasyon ni COrtes
-
1494, naitatag ng mga kastila ang lungsod ng Sto. Domingo
-kabisera ito ng Dominican Republic
-1514, sinakop ng kastila ang Cuba.
-Hernando Cortes, 33 y/o, pinamunuan niya ang ekspansiyon sa Mexico.
- taglay niya ang 11 barko,500 kawal,100 manlalayag,16 na kabayo mga aknyon at pulbura.
-nakasagip ng paring kastila si Cortes at ginawang interpreter.
-hinandugan siay ng 20 alipin.
-Malinche, alipin na marunong ng wikang mayan at nahuatl.
-naglakbay siya pahilaga at itinatag ang Vena Cruz.

Pananakop sa mga Aztec
-tinaggap ni Montezuma si Cortes sa Tenochtilla.
-ngunit ng makapasok siya doon, agad niyang binihag si Montezuma
-Inanyayahan ng isang kapitan ni Cortesang mahaharlikang Aztec sa isang salu-salo, at pinaslang.
-napatay si Montezuma at ang mahigit sa kalahati ng mga kastila habang palabas ng Tenochtitllan.
-matapos ang ilan pang paglusob sa mga Aztec, tuluyan na nilang isinuko ang Tenochtilla noong Agosto 1521.At ito ang naging lungsod ng Mexico.

Paglalayag ni Pizzaro
-Francisco Pizzaro,sumunod sa yapak ni Cortes. Anak siya ng isang kawal na nagahahangad yumaman at tumanyag.                   -noong 1530 ay umalis siya mula Panama patungong Peru kasama ang kanyang mga sundalo at kapatid.
-Noong 1524, sumiklab ang digmaang sibil kung saan nag-aagawansa kapangyarihan ang magkapatid na Inca.
-nagtagumpay si Atahualpa, ngunit humina ang kanyang pwersa, kaya sinamantala ito ni Pizzaro at sila’y nagsagupa sa bundok ng Andes noong 1531,nabihag si Atahualpa.
-inalok ni Atahualpa ng ginto si pizzaro, para sa kanynag kalayaan. ngunit matapos makuha ito ay pinatay din siya.
-nagaway-away sila dahil sa hatian.ngunit  tumagal pa pamumuno  nila 16 taon.
-noong 1547, isang kastila ang naluklok sa pamahalaan, bilang gobernador.

Pag-abante ng mga kastila
-nagpadala sila Pizzaro at Cortes ng mga tropang kastila sa pang lugar upang palaganapin ang kapangyarihan nila.
-si Cortes ay umabante sa Sentral Amerika, samantalang si Pizzaro ay nagtungo sa kasalukuyang Ecuador at Chile.
-ang iba ay nagtungo sa mayamang kapatagan ng Columbia na noo’y nasa pamumuno ni Haring Bogota.
-nakita nila ang kasaganahan ng lugar kaya, nilupig nila ito.
-noong 1530, may isang mayamang kastila ang namuno sa isang ekspidisyon. binuo ito ng 12 barko,1500 mga tao,at ilang daang mga bakaat kabayo. lumunsad sila sa bunganga ng ilog Plata.
-doon nila tinatag ang Buenos Aires.

Kolonisasyon ng mga Portuges
-
noong 1500, sinundsan ni Pedro Cabral ang ruta ni Da Gama ngunit lumiko ito sa kanlurang Atlantic at nakarating sa Brazil.
-1530, ng mabahala ang hari ng Portugal na baka, sakupin ito ng Espanya.
-humingi siya sa mayayamang mamamayan ng Portugal para sa binabalak niyang kolonisasyon sa Brazil.
-noong 1565, natatag ang bayan ng Rio de Janeiro.
-naging mapayapa ang kolonisayon  sa Brazil, dahil tinanggap naman sila ng mga Indian doon.
-asukal ang naging pangunahing produktong panluwas ng Brazil.

2. Ang malawak na imperyo ng Espanya sa Amerika
-
hindi naging madali sa Espanya ang pamamahala sa Amerika, dahil mas malaki pa ito kaysa sa kanilang bansa.
-pulo-pulo ang mga lugar dito kaya naging problema sa kanila ang paglalakbay.

Pamunuan ng imperyo
-
itinatag ni Haring Charles I noong 1524 ang Konseho ng Indies upang maktulong niya sa pamamahala sa kolonya
-ang Konseho ang nagpapatibay ng mga batas para sa kolonya ng Espanya.
-noong 1681, nagkaroon ng kalituhan sa pagpapatupad ng mga batas kaya inayos ang mmga ito sa isang simplang koda.
-nagtalaga ng viceroy ang Espanya para sa bagong espanya at Peru.
-tungkulin ng viceroy ana ipatupad ang kanyang polisya.
-ang viceroy ng Espanya ay nakatira sa Mexico at siya ang namamahala sa lahat ng teritoryo ng Espanya sa hilaga at sentral Amerika at mga pulo sa Caribbean.
-ang viceroy naman ng Peru na nakatira sa Lerma ay ang namamahala sa teritiryo ng Espanya sa Timog Amerika.
-ika-18 siglo ng hatiin ang Peru sa 2 vice royalalty:(1)ang Bagong Granada na Bogota ang kabisera, at (2)La Plata na Buenos Aires ang kabisera.

Pangangasiwa sa mga kolonya
-
ang itinalagang mga opisyales dito ay mga kastilang ipinanganak sa Espanya.
-ngunit, lumaganap ang katiwalian sa mga kolonya.
-peninsulares, mga Espanyol na ipinanganak sa Espanya.
-maraming nagalit sa mga kastila, dahil sa diskriminasyong kanilang ginawa sa mamamayan, maging sa kanilang mga kalahi.

Kalagayan sa lipunan ng mga creoles at mestizo.
-creoles, mga mamamayan na anak ng kastila, ngunit isinilang sa kolonya.
-mababa ang rango, kahit mayaman ang mga magulang. gusto maging peninsulares sa pamamagitan ng pagdadamit at pagastang kastilang isinilang sa Espanya.
-mestizo, anak ng kastila at indian.
-mas mababa ang ranggo at walang sariling lupa.
-nabubuhay sila sa pagsasaka ng mga upahang lupa.
-anh kanilang grupo ang bumuo ng pinakamalakingporsiyento ng populasyon sa kolonyal na Latin Amerika.

3.Ang mga Indian at Aprikanong manggagawa sa mga kolonya

*Pinaghati-hatian ng mga sundalo ang mga kayamanan ng Aztec at Inca. Ang mga creoles ay bumuo ng mga sektor ng mga aristokratong may-ari ng lupain. Nagkaroon ng lupain ang Simbahang Katoliko. Ngunit nagkulang sila sa mga manggawa.

Kalagayan ng mga manggagwang indian
-ang mga mabibigat na gawain ay iniatang sa mga indian.
-sila ang nagb ubungkal ng lupa at ginagamit sa pagmimina ng pilak sa mga nadiskubreng minahan sa Mexico at sa Bolivia.
-obligado ang mga indian na magbayad ng tributosa panginoong kastila.
-alipin ang trato ng mga kastila sa mga indian.
-encomienda, sistemang sapilitang paggawa na pinairal ng kastila.
-noong 1540 ipinagwalang bahala ng creole at viceroy ang sistema kaya maraming indian ang namatay sa plantasyon at minahan.
-di makatao ang pagtingin sa mga indian.
-marami ang nangamatay sa sakit na bulutong na dala ng mga Europeo.
-dahil dito bumababa sa 4 milyon ang populasyon india matapos ang 1 siglo.


Paano pinangalagaan ng simbahan ang Indian
-sinikap ng simbahan na kalingain ang mga Indian.
-nagpadala ng misyonero ang simbahan, nagtayo sila ng mga paaralan at pagamutan para sa mga Indian.
-sinikap din nilang proteksyunan nilang proteksyunan ang mga indian laban sa mga creoles.
-Padre Bartolome de las Casas, pinakapamosong  tagapagtanggol ng  mga indian.
-pinili siya ni Charles V.
-nakatulong sa pamahalaan ang simbahan


Misyon ng mga Heswita sa Paraguay
-ang heswita ang pinakamatagumpay na misyonero sa mga kolonya.
-nagtayo sila ng misyon sa mga nayon ng indiang Guaranisa kaslukuyang Paraguay.
tinuruan nila ng maraming bagay ang mga katutubo.
-natutuhan ng mga indian na sumulat at bumasa sa tulong ng mga heswita.
-noong 1767, iniutos ng pamahalaan ang pagpapaalis ng mga heswita sa mga kolonya ng Espanya sa Amerika.

Pagpasok ng mga Amerikanong alipin sa Amerika
-limiliit ang populasyon ng mga indian sa amerika deahil sa karamdaman at pagmamalupit ng mga kastila.
-pumayag ang espanya sa pagpasok ng mga negrong alipin buhat sa Aprika sa kadahilanang kailangan ng mga mangagagawa sa taniman sa kanlurang Indies.
-11 milyon ang kinarga sa mga kolonya ng espanya sa amerika ngunit 2 milyon ang namatay habang naglalayag  dahil sa teribleng kondisyon sa mga barko.

Sistema ng pang-aalipin sa Caribbean
-Ang karamihan sa mga alipin ay dinala sa mga pataniman ng tubo sa mga pulo  sa caribbean.
-tubo ang pangunahing produkto sa caribbean noong 1600.
-Brutal ang sistema ng pang-aalipin sa mga pataniman ng tubo sa Caribbean.

-Nagtrartrabaho ng 18 oras ng isang araw ang mga alipin, maging mga babae, lalaki, kabataan o matanda.

Pakikitungo ng mga Portuges sa mga alipin.

-Umangkat din ng mga alipin ang mga portuges para sa mga pataniman ng tubo sa Brazil.
Ginawa, ito dahil ang mga Indian sa Brazil ay nangangalap lamang ng pagkain at hindi sila marunong magbungkal ng lupa at magtanim.
-Linilala ng mga portuges ang mga alipin bilang mga taong may kaluluwa.
-Naging mahusay na mga artyisano ang ibang mga alipin.
-Ang ibang mga alipin ay tinuruang bumasa at sumulat at ang iba ay ipinadala pa sa unubersidad sa portugal upang magpatuloy ng pag-aaral.

Pagaalasa ng mga alipin.
-Noong 1790, nag-alsa ang mga alipin sa haiti.
Ito ang tinaguriang na pinakamalaki at pinakamatagumpay na rebelton ng mga alipin sa amerika.
Ang Haiti ang kaunahang malayang pamahalaan ng mga itim sa kanlurang hati ng mundo.
4.Sumilang ang sibilisayong Latino-Amerikano
-sa loob ng 300 taon , nagkasama ang 3 uri ng tatlo at kultura-Indian,Aprikano at mga Europeo (kastila at portuges)


Paghahalo ng mg lahi

-nagkapangasawahan ang mga indian, mga puti at mga itim sa kolonya ng Portugalat Espanya sa Amerika.
-sa Mexico, ang pinakamalaking porsiyento ng populasyon ay bunga ng pinaghalong dugo ng mga Kastila at Indian.
-walang gaanong pagtatangi ng lahi sa Brazil.

Mga impluwensiyang Indian at Aprikano sa kulturang Latino Amerikano.
-mahalaga ang papel ng mga indian at aprikano sa paglago ng kulturang Latino Amerikano.
-malaki ang kanilang naiambag sa larangan ng musika, pagpipinta,panitikan,pulitika at maging sa sining at pagluluto.
-inilarawan ng mga katutubo si Jesus sa anyong Indian.
-ang musika ay pinaghalong Europeo at katutubo.
-binuo ito ng mga sinaunang drama at pito ng mga Indian, mga bagong himig at sayaw ng mga aliping Negro, mga awiting pansimbahan buhat sa Europa.

Pangingibabaw ng impluwensiyang Europeo sa kulturang Latino-Amerikano
-ipinilit ng mga mananakop na Kastila at Portuges ang kanilang kultura sa mga katutubong Indian.
-ang sinaunang relihiyon ay pinalitan ng Katolisismo.
-ang paggamit ng dalawang pangunahing wika lamang at pananampalataya sa iisang relihiyon ang nagbubuklod sa buong Amerika sa iisang relihiyon ang nagbuklod sa buong LAtin Amerika sa iisang kultura na tinawagna sibilisasyong Latino-Amerikano.
-itinuro nila ang paraan ng pagsasaka at paglala sa Europeo.
-sistemang pamahalaan, pagbabatas, at ang konsepto ng pribadong pagmamay-ari.
-ang mga lungsod at bayan ay ginaya sa mga bayan at lungsod sa Espanya.
-nang lumunsad ang mga Pilgrim sa Plymouth noong 1620, mayroon nang 4,000 bahay bato sa Lima, Peru.
-ang mga lungsod ay may sistema alkantarilya kung saan dumadaloy ang mga natutunaw na niyebe mula sa kabundukan.

Mga paaralan at pamantasan
-kontrolado ng simbahan ang lahat ng lebel ng edukasyon katulad din ng sistema sa Portugal at Espanya.
-mga 10 porsiyento lamang ng mga tao ang marunong bumasa at sumulat.
-noong 1550, dalawang unibersidad ang nagtatag: isa sa lungsod ng Mexico  at ang isa ay sa Lima, Peru.
-mayroon ng 25 mga kolehiyo at unibersidad sa mga kolonyang Espanya sa Amerika.

Mababang kalagayan sa lipunan ng mga babae.
-ang mga maybahay ng mga propetaryo ang tumutupad ng obligasyon kaugnay sa relihiyon ng pamilya.
-ang pagiging pambahay lamang  ng mga babae at kawalan ng papel nito sa publikong buhay ay naging katangian ng kulturang Latino Amerikano.
-Sor Juana Ines dela Cruz (1651-1659), isang madreng Mexicano na itinanghal na pinakadakilang lirikong makata noong panahong kolonyal.

Kabanata 18: Ang siyensya at ang panahon ng katwiran at pagkamulat.

Copernicus > pinagaralan ang galaw ng araw at planeta

Geocentric > ang mundo ang sentro ng sansinukob at ditto umiikot ang araw , buwan , at iba pang planeta .

Heliocentric > nagpapahayag na ang araw at hindi ang mundo ang sentro ng sistemang solar .

Johannes Kepler > nakabuo ng tatlong batas na may kinalaman sa galaw ng mga planeta .

Galileo Galilei > pinagaralan ang mga likas na batas na may kinalaman sa pagkilospaggalaw ng mga bagay .  Unang nagaral sa pendulo ng orasan .

Isaac Newton > pinakadakilang siyentipiko ng daigdig . mahigit lamang siyang dalawampung taon ng matuklasan niya ang isang sistema sa matimatika na tinawag na calculus . Ang pinakamahalaga niyang nagawa ay ang pagkakadiskubre ng isang pormula sa matematika na nagpapaliwanag tungkol sa grabidad .

Gabriel Fahrenheit > nakaimbento ng unang termometrong mercury .

Andres Celsius > nakaimbento ng termometrong centigrade .

Otto Von Guericke > naimbento ang unang pambomba ng hangin .

Christian Huygens > gumawa ng unang orasang may pendulo .

Robert Boyle > unang taong gumamit ng siyentipikong pamamaraan sa kemistri . Pinatunayan niyang na ang hangin ay hindi elemento sapagka`t binubuo ito ng mga gases .

Henry Cavendish > hindi element ang tubig dahil binubuo ito ng mga gas na hydrogen at oxygen .

Joseph Priestly > napagalaman niya ang iba pang mga kemikal gaya ng ammonia at carbon monoxide .

Antoine Lavoisier > napatunayan na ang nasusunog na bagay ay hindi nagbubuga ng phlogiston sa halip ito ay sumasanib sa dephlogisticated ir na tinawag niyang oxygen .

John Napier > naimbento ang logarithms , ito`y isang maikling paraan sa pagkukuwenta ng mga malakihang numero .

Rene Descartes > nalinang ang analytic geometry .

William Gilbert > pinagaralan ang static electricity .

Benjamin Franklin > unang naniwala na ang kidlat ay katulad ng static electricity sa isang Leyden jar.

Andreas Vesalius > nagpasimula ng pag-aaral ng anatomiya .

William Harvey > nakatuklas kung paano nagratrabaho ang katawan ng tao .

Zacharias Janssen > nakagawa ng unang mikroskopyo

Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek > unang nakakita ng bakterya , gumawa siya ng sariling mikroskopyo at kanyang inilarawan ang anyo ng red blood corpuscles , mikrobyo at iba pang napakaliliit na anyo ng bagay .

John Locke > tinawag niyang social contract ang kasunduan sa pagitan ng tao at pamahalaan .

Francois Marie Arouet > kilala sa tawag na Voltaire , isang manunulat na matalim at mapanuya kung pumuna at wala siyang tiyaga sa mga hangal .

ARKITEKTURA

>isang halimbawa ng marangyang arkitekturang baroque ay ang palasyo ni Haring Louis

XIV

>Neoclassicism , eleganteng porma na may impluwensiya ng sining ng Gresya at Roma

MUSIKA

>Panrelihiyon ang komposisyon ni Bach at ni George Frederick Handel na lumikha ng Messiah.

>kinilala si Haydn sa pagkakalinang ng makabagong musika gaya ng sonata at symphony .

>Si Mozart ay nakalikha ng daang piyesa ng musika bagamat inabot lamang siya ng 35 na taong gulang .

PANITIKAN

>Alexander Pope naglantad sa kabulukan at mga hangal na kagawian ng lipunan sa pamamagitan ng kanyang mga berso .

>Naging popular si Jonathan Swift dahil sa kanyang Gulliver`s Travels , isang istorya ng paglalakbay

>unang akda sa porma ng nobela ay sinulat ni Daniel Defoe . pero marami ang naniniwala na ang unang nobela ay ang kay Samuel Richardsonna pinamagatang Pamela , na ang katumbas na atin ngayon ay soap opera .

>Henry Fielding nobela na Tom jones , isang kahalihalinang larawan ng Inglatera noong ika-18 dantaon .

>Sa sulating kasaysayan mahalaga ang kay Edward Gibbon na pinamagatang Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

Note: Concentrate your review on the application of these historical facts to a certain situation.

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