INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF HISTORY
What is History?
Etymology of the word:
His – Man + Story = Man’s Story
Chronicle of important and significant past events that influence the present and shapes the future.
Theories of History
n Cyclical theory
n Historical Nihilism
n Evolutionary/ Darwinian
The next question that we need to address is what are the uses of history?
n There are many different types of history:
n cultural history,
n diplomatic history,
n narrative history and
n social history.
n History clearly seeks to explain not just what happened but why it happened when it did.
n For a great period of time people believed that history unfolded according to Divine will.
n Thinkers such as Thomas Carlyle in the 18th century exalted the role of the individual in the process of history and it was the individual actions of key individuals at key moments in time that created history.
n Opponents of Carlyle contended that history was determined by forces and laws and by the actions of entire societies.
n Economists explain historical processes from the stand point of group action that is influenced by economic forces.
n In the 19th century Karl Marx argued that irresistible economic forces governed the action of human beings and determined the trend of historical events.
n Marx believed that the shift from one economic stage to another—such as the shift from feudalism to mercantilism to capitalism to what we have now—is attained by upheavals and revolutions.
n These revolutions occur because the class controlling the means of production eventually resists further progress to maintain its vested interests.
n Other 19th century thinkers such as Oswald Spengler maintained that civilizations grew like biological organisms and all experienced a spring, summer, fall and winter in their evolution.
n Finally, Charles Darwin argued that civilizations survived due to the survival of the fittest and Herbert Spencer later created what is known as Social Darwinism out of this line of thinking.
Why Study History?
n To know and be informed of the past.
n To understand the present.
n To design the future.
Branches of Social Sciences that historian consult about the explanation of some phenomenon.
n Political Science
It is important to understand the cultural stages that human civilization has gone through and throughout history there have been six needs common to all peoples throughout history which for the basis of a “Universal Cultural Pattern”
# 1. The need to survive or make a living: all men and women must have food,
shelter, clothing and the means to provide for their children’s survival.
n #2 The need for law and order and this includes the needs of the community to keep order within their own communities, protect community assets and protect the community from external attack.
* #3 The need for social organization. For numbers 1 and 2 to be achieved there must be a social structure and hierarchy within the community.
n #4 The need for knowledge and learning. Human experience and knowledge are transmitted first orally, and then by means of writing systems.
n #5 The need for artistic self-expression. People need to express themselves creatively, either through cave paintings or by writing books or creating music forms.
n #6 The need for religious expression. All peoples have a need to understand or at least attempt to explain their existences, the natural world around them, and especially death.
THE WORLD AND EARLY MAN
What Is WORLD HISTORY?
- - it is a description of the changes that have been taken place in the earth’s physical environment since earliest times.
- - a chronicle of the story of man and all his achievements, including every kind of culture and civilization he has ever established.
Topic Outline of the Unit:
– The Universe
– How the Earth Began?
– Physical Characteristics of the Earth
– Natural Resources
– Influence of Geography on History
– Geography and the World’s Population
– Continents of the World
- The Origin of Man
- Ancient Civilization
- - a vast space with unknown boundaries.
- - compose of million of galaxies.
- - each galaxy is made up of billion of stars, planets, moons, comets, meteorites, and other heavenly bodies.
- - Milky Way galaxy – solar system is found.
GEOGRAPHY AND WORLD HISTORY
- What is Geography?
- What are the different areas of Geography?
- - Physical Geography
- - Human or Cultural Geography
- - Economic Geography
HOW THE EARTH BEGAN?
- Theories of Science
- Nebular Theory – Kant
- Planetesimal Theory
- Theory of Little Planets
- Big Bang
- 3 degrees Kelvin radiation
What is the uniqueness of Earth than that of other planets and heavenly bodies that is found in the Universe?
Story of Divine Creation
- Why Story of Divine Creation?
- Story written in the Holy Bible
- Compose of:
– 39 Books = Genesis – Malachi
– 27 Books = Matthew – Revelation
Total Books = 66
The Days of Creation
In the Beginning – Heaven and Earth = Universe
Formless and desolate= covered with darkness
- Day 1 - Light
- Day 2 – Firmament= sky =water above and below were separated
- Day 3 – Separation of Water and Land (Seas, Oceans / Earth)
- Day 4 – 3 great lights (SMS)
- Day 5 – Air/Sky and Sea Creatures
- Day 6 – Land Creatures & MAN
Earth’s Physical Characteristics
- Water Forms
– River Systems
- Land Forms
– Land Area: 57, 280,000 km2
Continents of the World
- North America
- South America
Other Land Forms
- Greenland : Largest Island
- Raw Materials
- Living Resources
Kinds of Resources
- Weather - the temperature and precipitation of a particular place at a particular time.
- Climate – the average weather conditions of an area over a long period of time.
3 Major Climate Zones
- Frigid Zones
- Temperate Zones
- Torrid Zones
Changing Climate Conditions
- “Why the weather growing wild?”
- “Greenhouse Effect”
- “Global Warming”
Natural Temperature Modifiers
- El Nino – Southern Oscillations (ENSO)
– Long dry season
- La Nina
- Long rainy season
- Brighter Sun
How Geography Influenced History?
Geography and the World Population
- What is the current trend of population growth?
- Explain the effects of uncontrolled population growth?
- How does geography influence population distribution?