Social Scientist

July 24, 2010

Introduction to the study of History and Chapter 1




What is History?


Etymology of the word:


His – Man + Story = Man’s Story





Social Science


Important/ significant

Past events


Chronicle of important and significant past events that influence the present and shapes the future.


Theories of History


n      Cyclical theory

n      Historical Nihilism

n      Evolutionary/ Darwinian

n      Marxism

n      Biblical/Christian


The next question that we need to address is what are the uses of history?

n      There are many different types of history:

n       cultural history,

n      diplomatic history,

n      narrative history and

n      social history.


n      History clearly seeks to explain not just what happened but why it happened when it did.


n      For a great period of time people believed that history unfolded according to Divine will.

n      Thinkers such as Thomas Carlyle in the 18th century exalted the role of the individual in the process of history and it was the individual actions of key individuals at key moments in time that created history.

n      Opponents of Carlyle contended that history was determined by forces and laws and by the actions of entire societies.

n      Economists explain historical processes from the stand point of group action that is influenced by economic forces.

n      In the 19th century Karl Marx argued that irresistible economic forces governed the action of human beings and determined the trend of historical events.

n      Marx believed that the shift from one economic stage to another—such as the shift from feudalism to mercantilism to capitalism to what we have now—is attained by upheavals and revolutions.

n      These revolutions occur because the class controlling the means of production eventually resists further progress to maintain its vested interests.

n      Other 19th century thinkers such as Oswald Spengler maintained that civilizations grew like biological organisms and all experienced a spring, summer, fall and winter in their evolution.

n      Finally, Charles Darwin argued that civilizations survived due to the survival of the fittest and Herbert Spencer later created what is known as Social Darwinism out of this line of thinking.


Why Study History?


n      To know and be informed of the past.

n      To understand the present.

n      To design the future.


Branches of Social Sciences that historian consult about the explanation of some phenomenon.


n      Economics

n      Anthropology

n      Archeology

n      Geography

n      Political Science

n      Sociology

n      Linguistics

n      Philosophy


It is important to understand the cultural stages that human civilization has gone through and throughout history there have been six needs common to all peoples throughout history which for the basis of a “Universal Cultural Pattern”


# 1. The need to survive or make a living: all men and women must have food,

       shelter, clothing and the means to provide for their children’s survival.


n      #2 The need for law and order and this includes the needs of the community to keep order within their own communities, protect community assets and protect the community from external attack.


*    #3 The need for social organization. For numbers 1 and 2 to be achieved there must be a social structure and hierarchy within the community.


n      #4 The need for knowledge and learning. Human experience and knowledge are transmitted first orally, and then by means of writing systems.


n      #5 The need for artistic self-expression. People need to express themselves creatively, either through cave paintings or by writing books or creating music forms.


n      #6 The need for religious expression. All peoples have a need to understand or at least attempt to explain their existences, the natural world around them, and especially death.









  • - it is a description of the changes that have been taken place in the earth’s physical environment since earliest times.
  • - a chronicle of the story of man and all his achievements, including every kind of culture and civilization he has ever established.


Topic Outline of the Unit:


  • Geography

            – The Universe

            – How the Earth Began?

            – Physical Characteristics of the Earth

            – Natural Resources

            – Climate

            – Influence of Geography on History

            – Geography and the World’s Population

            – Continents of the World

  • The Origin of Man
  • Ancient Civilization




  • - a vast space with unknown boundaries.
  • - compose of million of galaxies.
  • - each galaxy is made up of billion of stars, planets, moons, comets, meteorites, and other heavenly bodies.
  • - Milky Way galaxy – solar system is found.



  • What is Geography?
  • What are the different areas of Geography?
  • - Physical Geography
  • - Human or Cultural Geography
  • - Economic Geography



  • Theories of Science

 - Nebular Theory  – Kant

                               – Laplace

  • Planetesimal Theory

 - Theory of Little Planets

  • Big Bang

 - 3 degrees Kelvin radiation


What is the uniqueness of Earth than that of other planets and heavenly bodies that is found in the Universe?


Story of Divine Creation

  • Why Story of Divine Creation?
  • Story written in the Holy Bible

The Bible

  • Compose of:

             Old Testament

            – 39 Books = Genesis – Malachi

            New Testament

            – 27 Books = Matthew – Revelation

 Total Books = 66


The Days of Creation

  • Genesis

 Chapter 1


In the Beginning – Heaven and Earth = Universe

Formless and desolate= covered with darkness

  • Day 1  - Light
  • Day 2 – Firmament= sky =water above and below were separated
  • Day 3 – Separation of Water and Land (Seas, Oceans /  Earth)
  • Day 4 – 3 great lights (SMS)
  • Day 5 – Air/Sky and Sea Creatures
  • Day 6 – Land Creatures &  MAN



Earth’s Physical Characteristics

  • Water Forms

            – Oceans

            – Seas

            – Bays

            – Gulf

            – River Systems

  • Land Forms

            – Land Area: 57, 280,000 km2


Continents of the World

  1. Asia
  2. Africa
  3. North America
  4. South America
  5. Europe
  6. Australia
  7. Antarctica


Other Land Forms

  • Islands

 - Greenland : Largest Island

  • Peninsulas
  • Mountains
  • Hills
  • Plains
  • Plateaus


Natural Resources

  • Raw Materials
  • Energy
  • Water
  • Air
  • Land
  • Living Resources

            – plants

            – animals

            – fishes


Kinds of Resources

  • Renewable
  • Nonrenewable





  • Weather - the temperature and precipitation of a particular place at a particular time.
  • Climate – the average weather conditions of an area over a long period of time.


3 Major Climate Zones

  1. Frigid Zones
  2. Temperate Zones
  3. Torrid Zones


Changing Climate Conditions

  • “Why the weather  growing wild?”
  • “Greenhouse Effect”
  • “Global Warming”


Natural Temperature Modifiers

  • Volcanoes
  • El Nino – Southern Oscillations (ENSO)

            – Long dry season

  • La Nina

             - Long rainy season

  • Brighter Sun


How Geography Influenced History?


Geography and the World Population


  • What is the current trend of population growth?
  • Explain the effects of uncontrolled population growth?
  • How does geography influence population distribution?

July 12, 2009

For 3rd Year Lessons

Filed under: Third Year Lessons @ 7:42 am and

Modyul sa Kasaysayan ng Daigdig




(Week # 1: Hunyo 15 – 19, 2009)


I. Paksa: Oryentasyon at Pagpapakilala


II. Aktibidad:


     Know me and My Partner



Week # 2 – 3 : Hunyo 23-Hulyo 3, 2009 (Walang pasok)


Week 4 – Hulyo 6 – 10, 2009


Panimulang Pag-aaral ng Kasaysayan


I. Mga Layunin:


  1. Nasasabi ang mga dahilan kung bakit dapat pag-aralan ang kasaysayan.
  2. Naibibigay ang pinagkuhanan ng mga historyador ng kaalaman (data) para sa kasaysayan.
  3. Nasusuri ang kaugnayan ng pag-aaral ng kasaysayan sa iba pang agham panlipunan.
  4. Nasusuri ang mahalagang katanungan na ukol sa sarili at sa lipunan, at ipakita kung papaano ito masasagot sa pamamagitan ng kaalaman ng kasaysayan.
  5. Nakikilala ang kahalagahan ng kasaysayan sa pag-unlad ng isang bansa.
  6. Nagiging huwarang mga mag-aaral sa lahat ng aspeto ng pamumuhay sa lipunang ginagalawan sa pamamagitan ng pagiging masunurin sa lahat ng tuntuning ipinapatupad ng paaralan at pamahalaan.


II. Mga Aktibidad


  1. Ilarawan Nyo, Huhulaan Namin
  2. Malayang Talakayan


III. Talakayan


  1. Ano ang kahulugan ng Kasaysayan?


Pinagmulan ng salitang kasaysayan – “historia” Latin – pinagmulan


History – His – Tao + Story = Kwento ng tao


2. Mga Teorya ng Kasaysayan


  1. Cyclical Theory – “History repeats itself”
  2. Marxist Theory -  Class struggle “Haves vs. have nots”
  3. Teorya ng walang humpay na pagbabago- continuous changes- walang humpay na pagbabagong nagaganap
  4. Creationist/Biblical/Christian Theory – everything happened was purposed by God and written in the Bible

3. Bakit mahalaga ang pag-aaral ng kasaysayan?

      a. Mapahalagahan ang nakaraan

      b. Maunawaan ang kasalukuyan

      c. Makalikha ng magandang hinaharap


4. Mga agham panlipunan na may kaugnayan sa pag-aaral ng kasaysayan


    1. heograpiya
    2. sosyolohiya
    3. ekonomiks
    4. arkeolohiya
    5. antropolohiya
    6. pilosopiya
    7. agham pampulitika
    8. lingguistika
    9. sikolohiya
    10. paleontolohiya
    11. lohika
    12. etika
    13. heolohiya


  1. Paano ang kasaysayan makakatulong sa iyo bilang isang mag-aaral?

IV. Ebalwasyon : Maikling Pagsusulit


Week # 5 : Hulyo 13-17, 2009


I. Paksa: Ang Nagbabagong Heograpiya ng Daigdig


II. Mga Layunin:


  1. Naipamamalas ang pag-unawa sa kinalaman ng heograpiya sa pamumuhay ng mga tao ng sinaunang daigdig*
  2. Nasusuri ang teorya tungkol sa pinagmulan ng daigdig*
  3. Nailalarawan ang katangiang pisikal ng daigdig bilang tirahan ng tao*
  4. Naipaliiwanag ang kahalagahan ng heograpiya sa kasaysayan*
  5. Nasusuri ang kaugnayan ng heograpiya sa mga pandaigdigang penomena (global warming, el niño, la niña at iba pa.)*
  6. Magabayan ang mga mag-aaral na maunawaan ang kaniyang sarili at mundong ginagalawan.
  7. Maitanim sa kanila ang kaalaman, kasanyan, mabuting saloobin at pagpapahalaga sa mga bagay ng nakaraan upang sila’y maging mabubuti at responsableng mamayan.
  8. Maipakita ang pag-unawa sa kahalagahan ng heograpiya sa paraan ng pamumuhay ng mga sinaunang tao sa mundo.


III. Talakayan


1. Ano ang mga teorya hinggil sa pinagmulan ng daigdig?


a.       Ang teorya ng mga Sumerian at Griyego – Enlil –diyos ng hangin ng mga Sumeriano –tumibag ng bundok at ikinalat

Griyego – Thales – ang digdig ay lumulutang sa palanggana na may tubig

                Anaximander – nagsimula sa nag aapoy na bola na sumusuklob naman sa isang malamig at basing umbok… ang malmig na umbok sa kalaunan ay naging daigdig


b.      Ang teoryang Nebular –Immanuel Kant –Alemang Pilosoper – 1775 – nanggaling sa isang malaking ulap o nebula – composisyon ay gas – sinang-ayunan ni Laplace –syentistang Pranses -1796 – ang planeta ay resulta ng mainit at mabilis na pag-ikot ng araw na sa mula’t mula pa ay mainit at umiikot na.

c.       Teoryang Planetesimal – ika -19 na siglo – teoryang maliliit na planeta – ang araw ay dumaan sa isang bituin. Sa bilis ng paghihiwalay, mainit na gas ang umagos sa pagitan nito. Unti unting lumamig ang gas at naging patak ng likido na tumigas at nabuo sa isang pitak ng bato o planetesimal.

d.      Teoryang Big-Bang – teoryang malakas na pagsabog

e.       Teorya ng Espesyal na Paglalang – Biblical

f.        Teorya ng Kontenenteng Umaanod – Alfred Wegener – 1912 – Pangaea –isang masa ng salita – nahiwalay – Gondwanaland at Laurasia – isang pulgada bawat taon


2. Ang Daigdig sa Sitemang Solar – nag-iisang planeta sa solar system na may buhay

3. Katangiang Pisikal ng Daigdig


     Mga anyong lupa

    1. bundok
    2. talampas
    3. burol
    4. libis (valley)
    5. kapatagan
    6. kontinente
    7. Kapuluan
    8. Pulo
    9. Tangway (peninsula)
    10. Canyon

   Mga Anyong Tubig

a.       Karagatan

b.      Dagat

c.       Kipot

d.      Isthmus (canal)

e.       Kipot

f.        Lawa

g.       Ilog

h.       Delta

i.         Batis



Mga Karagatan ng Daigdig

  1. Pasipiko
  2. Anlantiko
  3. Indian
  4. Arctic


Mga Kontinente

  1. Asya –
  2. Europa –
  3. Aprika
  4. Hilagang Amerika
  5. Timog Amerika
  6. Oceania
  7. Antarktika

Week #6 – Hulyo 20 -24, 2009


Paksa: Ang mga Unang Tao


Mga Layunin


  1. Nasusuri ang katangian ng mga yugto ng pag-unlad ng kultura ng unang tao.
  2. Naipagmamalaki na  ang kabihasnan ng diagdig ay unang nalinang at napaunlad sa Asya.
  3. Magawa ang masusing pagsusuri sa mga mahahalagang pangyayari na naganap sa mundo
  1. Simula ng Buhay sa Sinaunang Daigdig


Buod –tanaw:


Ang nag-iisang paliwanag tungkol sa pagkaroon ng buhay sa daigdig ay ang nababatay sa relihiyon.  Ito ay ang tinatawag na creationism o ang paniniwala na ang mga nabubuhay na bagay sa mundo o daigdig ay nilikha ng Panginoong  Diyos. Ang kabuuang kasaysayan nito ay mababasa sa unang aklat ng Biblia: ang Genesis o ang pasimula. Dito malinaw na mababasa ang proseso ng paglalang na ginawa ng ating Panginoong Diyos na siyang naghahayag ng Kanyang kapangyarihan at kadakilaan.


Mga Lahi ng Tao


1. Caucasoid – maputi

2. Mongoloid – dilaw

3. Negroid – itim

4. Australoid – maitim na maliit



Ang Pinagmulan ng Tao ayon sa Relihiyong Paniniwala


Urin ng Paglalang sa Tao (Iba’t Ibang Paraan)


1. Alabok – Adan

2. Tadyang – Eba

3. Espiritu Santo – Panginoong Jesucristo

4. Matrimonyo – Tayo


Ano ang kayarian o sangkap mayroon ang tao?


1. espiritu – hininga ng buhay na galing sa Diyos

2. kaluluwa- katawang loob/pagkataong loob

3. pisikal na katawan


  1. Kultura na Panahong Paleolitiko
  2. Mga Pag-unlad sa Panahon ng Gitnang Bato at Panahon ng Bagong Bato
  3. Pag-unlad ng Tao sa Panahong Metal

Week #7 – (Hulyo 28-31, 2009)  (Nota: Hulyo 27, 2009 – 95th INC Day –Holiday)


Tao ayon sa Biblia



Adan ——-Eba——-                                                                                                Sem


                                                  Abel- pinatay ni Cain ——- Seth —–Noeh           Cham





Sem —– Abraham ——– Isaac


                                                                   Jacob —– 12 angkan ni Israel 















Ice Age











Panahon ng


Atomic Age



Computer Age






?——-c.300,000 B.C.—c.12,000B.C.—–c.8,000B.C.—–c.3,500B.C———-c.476 A.D.——–c. 1450A.D.——c.1500A.D—-c.1960——c.1970—-c.1980- 2006 .AD.

                                                                                                                                                                  c. 4B.C. Birth of Christ  

                                                    PANAHON BAGO ANG KRISTO (B.C.         ANNO DOMINI (A.D.) PANAHON NS



                                                                                   c.3300 B.C.         c. 2,500. B.C.

                                                                                   Kabihasanan sa                Kabihasnan sa Ilog-           c. Pagbagsak ng

                                                                                   Ilog-Lambak Nile             lambak Huang Ho          Imperyo Romano sa

                                                                                   Kabihasnan sa  Mesopotamia  c.2700B.C.                   Kanluran                    Cold War

                                                                                    Pagkakatuklas sa               Kabihasnan sa

                                                                                    Unang sistema ng              Ilog-lambak Indus




                      P     A     G     L     A     L     A     N     G                                      B     I     B     L     I     C     A     L           A     C     C     O     U     N     T     S

1st Day

2nd Day

3rd Day

4th Day

5th Day

6th Day





                                                             c. 4500B.C.—c.2400 B.C.—c. 2,000 B.C.—c. 1400 B.C. -c.1053 B.C.—c. 1013 B.C.–c. 973 B.C.

                                                                                                Paglalang ng       Bahang Gunaw Abraham Moises at  Saul  David    Solomon

                                                                                              Panginoong Diyos kay Adan at Eba              Exodus

Paglikha ng Paghihiwalay  Paglalang  Paglalang ng  Paglalang ng        Paglalang

                    ng tubig sa     ng mga      araw, buwan   mga isda at          sa mga hayop

  Liwanag     kaitaasan at   buhay-       at bituin        mga ibon (fowl)   sa lupa at sa

                   sa ibaba at      halaman                                                          tao


                   ng kalawakan


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