Social Scientist

December 19, 2011

Test No. 4 in Rizal

Filed under: Rizal,Uncategorized @ 3:09 am and

Note: you may submit your answer in the comment part or you may sent it to my e mail [email protected]   You have until December 26, 2011 to submit your answer.

 

Answer the following questions or statement briefly but concise:

1. Why Rizal’s “To My Fellow Children” reveals his nationalist sentiments?

2. What influences Rizal’s boyhood? Discuss each briefly.

3. Describe briefly the injustice done to Rizal’s mother.

4. Why Rizal was refused admission to Ateneo?

5. How students were group in Ateneo as part of Jesuits system of education?

6. Make a poem entitled “My First Inspiration”

 

Good Luck.. God Bless.. :)

December 11, 2011

Rizal Life and Works

Filed under: Rizal,Uncategorized @ 4:18 am and
Life and Works of Rizal
  1. CHAPTER 1:
  1. A HERO IS BORN
    “I was born in Kalamba on the 19th of June 1881
    between eleven and twelve o’clock at night,
    a few days before the full moon”
    - Jose Rizal
  2. JUNE 19, 1861 – the day when Jose Rizal was bornJOSE RIZAL
    - The greatest hero of the Philippines
    - “many – splendored genius”
    - dowered by God superb “intellectual”,
    - “moral” and “physical qualities”
    - a man of many talents
    - a martyr and a patriot
  3. WORLD WHEN RIZAL WAS BORN
    1861
    PAX HISPANICA – reigned over the archipelago
    GOV. JOSE LEMERY – the governor general
    – a good militarist & established politico military over Visayas & Mindanao
    GARGANTUAN, CHINA – prustratedand impotent to stop over foreign devils
    OCTOBER 22, 1860 – Convention of Peking
    1850-1864 – TAIPING REBELLION
    IMPERIALIST WESTERN POWERS – victories over China and tried it on Japan
    1854 – COMMODDORE MATTHEW C. PERRY – he unlocked Japan
  4. JUNE 19, 1861 – Rizal was born
    JUNE 22, 1861 – baptismal of Rizal
    FATHER RUFINO COLLANTES – baptized Rizal
    FATHER PEDRO CASAÑAS – Rizal’s godfather (ninong)
    MARIANO HERBOSA – nephew of Father Casañas and will marry Lucia
    JOSE PROTACIO RIZAL MERCADO Y ALONZO REALONDA
    – the complete name of Jose Rizal
  5. FRANCISCO MERCADO RIZAL
    • May 11, 1818 (birthdate)
    • He studied Latin and Philosophy in College of San Jose in Manila
    • His mother died, then he moved to Calamba to became a tenant farmer in a Dominican estate
    • June 28, 1848 – he married Teodora Alonzo Realonda
    • January 5, 1898 ; he died at 80 in Manila
  6. TEODORA ALONZO REALONDA
    • November 8, 1826 (birthdate)
    • College of Santa Rosa
    • August 16, 1911 ; she died at 85
  7. THE RIZAL CHILDREN
    SATURNINA NARCISA
    PACIANO OLIMPIA
  8. LUCIA JOSE
    MARIA CONCEPCION
    (died at 3)
  9. JOSEFA SOLEDAD
    (unmarried)
    TRINIDAD
    (unmarried)
  10. RIZAL’S ANCESTRY
    PATERNAL SIDE
    DOMINGO LAM – CO – great – great grandfather
    - A Chinese immigrant from Chinchew “China’s City of Spring”
    - He was married to INES DE LA ROSA
    1731- He adopt the name MERCADO meaning MARKET
    FRANCISCO MERCADO – Domingo Lam-
    Co’s son who married CIRILA BERNACNA
    JUAN MERCADO – Francisco’s son who married CIRILA ALEJANDRO
    FRANCISCO MERCADO (Rizal’s Father) – son of Juan Mercado
  11. RIZAL’S ANCESTRY
    MATERNAL SIDE
    LAKAN – DULA – descendant
    EUGENIO URSUA – great – great grandfather of Rizal
    - He is married to BENIGNA and they have a daughter named REGINA
    REGINA – married to MANUEL DE QUINTOS and they have a daughter named BRIGIDA
    BRIGIDA – married to LORENZO ALBERTO and they have their sons and daughters named NARCISA,TEODORA, GREGORIO, JOSE and MANUEL
    RIZAL – “racial”; means “new pasture” and “green field”
  12. PROOFS THAT RIZAL FAMILY BELONGS TO WELL TO DO FAMILY
    • They have a large stone house
    • They have a home library with 1000 volumes of books
    • First to sent their children in Manila
    • They own a carjuahe
  1. CHAPTER IV:
  1. TRIUMPHS IN THE ATENEO
  2. SAN JUAN DE LETRAN – Dominican – owned college and a rival of Ateneo de Manila
    ATENEO MUNICIPAL – formerly known as EscuelaPia, a charity school for poor boys in Manila which was established by 1817 and later became Ateneo de Manila.Rizal took and passed the examination in COLLEGE OF SAN JUAN DE LETRAN but he enrolled in ATENEO when he came back to Manila.
  3. RIZAL ENTERS ATENEOFATHER MAGIN FERRANDO (college registrar) – refused to admit Jose Rizal because ;
    • He was late for registration
    • He was sickly and undersized for his age

    MANUEL XEREZ BURGOS – nephew of Father Burgos; Rizal was admitted to Ateneobecause of him
    RIZAL – surname used by Jose Rizal because Mercado became under suspicion by the Spanish authorities.
    MERCADO – surname used by Paciano
    TITAY – owner of the boarding house where Rizal boarded to settle the bill owed by Titay by about Php300.00

  4. JESUIT SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONReasons why Jesuit System was advance than other college
    • It trained the character of students by rigid discipline and religious instruction.
    • It promotes physical culture, humanities and scientific studies.
    • Aside from academic courses leading to AB, it offers vocational course in agriculture, commerce, mechanics and surveying.
    • They were given splendid professors.
    • They acquired prestige as an excellent college for boys.
  5. TWO GROUPS OF STUDENTRoman Empire (internos/boarders) -RED FLAG
    Carthaginian Empire (externos/non-boarders) -BLUE FLAG

    5 RANKS
    EMPEROR
    TRIBUNE
    DECURION
    CENTURION
    STANDARD BEARER
    RAYADILLO – official uniform of Ateneo students

  6. FATHER JOSE BECH – first teacher of Rizal in Ateneo
    Rizal was placed as an externo but a week after he showed his progress and after a month he became the emperor.SANTA ISABEL COLLEGE – where Rizal took his Spanish lessons during recess and paid it for Php 3.00
    Rizal returned to Calamba for his vacation. Saturnina brought him to Tanawan to visit their mother to cheer him up. After the vacation he returned to Ateneo for his second year. He is now living at DOÑA PEPAY, an old landlady with widowed daughter and four sons.
  7. SECOND YEAR IN ATENEO(1873-1874)He again became an emperor; he also received excellent grades in all subjects and a gold medal. At March 1874, he returned to Calamba for his vacation.

    PROPHECY OF MOTHER’S RELEASE

    DoñaTeodora was released in the jail after 3 months like what Jose Rizal said.

    St. JOSEPH – Rizal was comparable because of his interpretation about his mother’s release.

  8.  TEENAGE INTEREST IN READING
    TWO FAVORITE NOVELS OF RIZALTHE COUNT OF MONTE CRISTO by Alexander Dumas
    TRAVEL IN THE PHILIPPINES by Feodor Jagor
    UNIVERSAL HISTORY by Cesar Cantus
    – he wishes to buy
    THIRD YEAR IN ATENEO (1874-1875)

    He only got 1 medal in his Latin subject, then on March 1875 he returned to Calamba

  9. FOURTH YEAR IN ATENEO (1875-1876)JUNE 16,1875 – Rizal became an interne in Ateneo
    FATHER FRANCISCO SANCHEZ – Rizal’s favorite teacher

    Rizal won 5 medals and topped in all subjects and on March, 1876 he returned to Calamba.

    Rizal became the pride of the Jesuits and he obtained highest grades in all subjects. He received the degree of Bachelor of Arts with highest honors during commencement exercise.

  10. EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES IN ATENEO
    • He was an emperor and a campus leader outside.
    • Secretary of the Marian Congregation
    • Member of Academy of Spanish Literature
    • Member of Academy of Natural Sciences

    FATHER JOSE VILLACLARA – advised Rizal to stop communing with the muses but to pay more attention to practical studies.

    Rizal studied painting at AGUSTIN SAEZ and sculpture under ROMUALDO DE JESUS, a Filipino sculptor.

  11. SCULPTURAL WORKS IN ATENEOTHE VIRGIN MARY – he carved an image with Batikuling (Phil. Hardwood) with his pocket knife
    FATHER LLEONART – requested Rizal to carved an image of SACRED HEART OF JESUS

    POEMS MADE BY RIZAL IN ATENEO
    DoñaTeodora was the first one to discover Rizal’s poetical talent while Fr. Sanchez helped Rizal to develop his talent.

    Poems made by Rizal:

    •  Mi Primera Inspiration (My First Inspiration) – dedicated to Rizal’s mother
    • Through Education Our Motherland Receives Light
    • The Intimate Alliance between Religion and Good Education
    • To the Child
    • To the Virgin Mary
  12. DRAMATIC WORK IN ATENEOFather Sanchez requested Rizal to wrote a drama based with ST. EUSTACE THE MARTYR and on June 2, 1876, Rizal had finished the drama.

    FIRST ROMANCE OF RIZAL

    SEGUNDA KATIGBAK – a 14 yr. old Batangueña from Lipa whom Rizal first fell inloved with but Segundawas already engaged to Manuel Luz.
    MARIANO KATIGBAK – brother of Segunda
    LA CONCORDIA COLLEGE – where Segunda and Olimpia (Rizal’s sister) studied’

  13. CHAPTER 5:
  1. AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS
  1. 2 courses enrolled at UST
    • Philsophyand Letters (1877 – 1878)
    • Medicine

    Mother’s Opposition to Higher Education
    -          Don Francisco and Paciano wanted Jose to pursue higher learning
    -          Dona Teodora opposed this

  2. RIZAL ENTERS THE UNIVERSITY
    -          April 1877, Rizal at 16 years old, entered University of Santo Tomas
    2 reasons why he enrolled Philosophy and Letters

    • His father liked it
    • He was not sure what career to pursue

    Father Pablo Ramon – Rector of the Ateneo, Rizal asked for advice on the choice of career
    Rizal studied Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theodicy, and History of Philosophy
    He took up a medical course 1878-1879 because;

    • he followed AteneoRector’s advice
    • wanted to be able to cure his mother’s growing blindness
  3. FINISHES SURVEYING COURSE IN ATENEO 1878
    -       He took a vocational course in Ateneo during his first term in UST
    -       The course lead to the title peritoagrimensor(expert surveyor)
    -      He passed the final examination at the age of 17
    -         He was granted the title on November 25, 1881
    -          His loyalty to Ateneocontinued
    President of the Academy of Spanish Literature
    Secretary of the Academy of Natural Sciences
    Secretary of the Marian Congregation
  4. ROMANCES WITH OTHER GIRLS
    - SEGUNDA KATIGBAK
    14 yr. old Batanguena and engaged to Manuel Luz
    -          “MISS L”
    A girl with seductive eyes
    The romance died a natural death because:

    • The sweet memory of Segunda was still fresh in his heart
    • His father did not like the family of “Miss L”
  5. -          LEONOR VALENZUELA
    Daughter of Capitan Juan and CapitanaSandayValenzuela, their neighbors who were from Pagsanjan, Laguna
    Her pet name was “Orang”
    Rizal sent notes to her made with invisible ink (salt solution)
    - LEONOR RIVERA

    • Jose boarded in Casa Tomasina (No. 6 Calle Santo Tomas, Intramuros)
    • Daughter of his landlord-uncle from Camiling, Antonio Rivera
    • She was a student at La Concordia College, also the school of Soledad, Jose’s youngest sister
    • Born in Camiling, Tarlac on April 11, 1867
    • She used the name “Taimis” in her letters to Rizal
  6. VICTIM OF SPANISH OFFICER’S BRUTALITY
    -        Setting: Dark night, summer vacation 1878. Calamba
    -         He passed by a lieutenant of the Guardia Civil but failed to recognize the latter
    -         Insulted, the lieutenant slashed Jose’s back with his sword
    -         Jose reported to General Primo de Rivera, Spanish governor general, but no resolution was done because of racial discrimination
  7. TO THE FILIPINO YOUTH (1879)
    -Literary contest by Artistico-Literario (Artisitic- Literary Lyceum)
    -      Rizal, 18 years old, submitted his poem entitled A La Juventud Filipina(To the Filipino Youth)
    -       The first prize, a feather shaped, gold ribbon decorated silver pen was given to Rizal
    -        In the poem, Rizal beseeched the Filipino to rise from lethargy, to let their genius fly swifter than the wind and descend with art science to break the chains that have long bound the spirit of the people.
    -          The poem is a classic. Two reasons:

    • It was the first great poem in Spanish written by a Filipino whose merit was recognized by Spanish literary authorities
    • It expressed for the first time the nationalistic concept that the Filipinos, and not the foreigners were the “fair hope of the Fatherland.”
  8. THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS (1880)
    Another literary contest by the Artistic-Literary Lyceum to commemorate the fourth centennial of the death of Cervantes, Spanish and author of Don Quixote.
    Manuel De Cervantes – Spain’s glorified man of letter
    -          Rizal submitted an allegorical drama,El Consejo de los Dioses (The Council of the Gods)
    -          The allegory was based on Greek classics
    -      Rizal was aided by Father Rector of the Ateneo in securing the needed reference materials
    - The contest was participated by priest, laymen, professors of UST, newspapermen and scholars.
    - Rizal won the first price; he received a gold ring engraved with bust of Cervantes.
    - D.N. Del Puzo – a Spanish writer won the 2nd price
  9. OTHER LITERARY WORKS
    1879: Abd-el-Azis y Mahoma
    A poem, declaimed by an Atenean, manuel Fernandez on December 8, 1879 in honor of the Ateneo’sPatroness
    1880: Junto al Pasig(Beside the Pasig)
    A zarzuela, staged  by the Ateneans on December 8, 1880 on the Feast Day of the Immaculate Conception, Patroness of the Ateneo. Rizal wrote it as President of the Academy of Spanish Literature
    1880: A Filipinas
    A sonnet, for the album of the Society of Sculptors
    Rizal urged all Filipino artist to glorify the Philippines
    1881: Al M.R.P. Pablo Ramon
    A poem, an expression of affection to Father Pablo Ramon, the Ateneorector
  10. RIZAL’S VISIT TO PAKIL AND PAGSANJAN
    May 1881 – Jose, along with his sisters Saturnina, Maria, and Trinidad and female friends went on a pilgrimate to Pakil, famous shrine of the Birhen Maria de los Dolores.
    -        They boarded a casco(a flat-bottom sailing vessel) from Calamba to Pakil, Laguna
    - They stayed at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Manuel Regalado, parents of Nicolas, Rizal’s friend in Manila
    -          The company witnessed the famous turumba, the people dancing in honor of the miraculous Birhen Maria de los Dolores
    -         Rizal was infatuated by VicentaYbardolaza
    She was skillful in playing the harp at the Regalado home
    -          Rizal and his party then went to Pagsanjan for two reasons

    • It was the native town of Leonor Valenzuela
    • To see the world famed Pagsanjan Falls
  11. CHAMPION OF FILIPINO STUDENTS
    -          There were frequent student brawls between the Filipinos and the Spaniards
    -          1880: Rizal founded Companerismo(Comradeship), a secret society of Filipino UST students. The members were called “Companions of Jehu”.
    - He was the chief of the society.
    - His cousin, GalicanoApacible was the secretary.
    -          In one of the skirmishes, Rizal was wounded on the head.Hisfriends brought him to Casa Tomasinawhere Leonor Rivera took care of him.
  12. UNHAPPY DAYS AT THE UST
    Rizal was unhappy in the Dominican institution because:

    • The Dominican professors were hostile to him
    • The Filipino students were racially discriminated against by the Spaniards
    • The method of instruction was obsolete and repressive.

    He failed to win high scholastic honors due to the attitude of his professors.

  13. DECISION TO STUDY ABROAD
    Rizal decided to study in Spain after finishing the fourth year of his medical course.
    The people who approved this are the following:

    • His older brother Paciano
    • His sisters Saturnina (Neneng) and Lucia
    • Uncle Antonio Rivera
    • The Valenzuela family
    • Some friends

    The people who did not know of his decision are the following:

    • Rizal’s parents
    • Leonor Rivera
    • Spanish authorities
  1. CHAPTER 6:
    IN SUNNY SPAIN
  2. MAY 3, 1882 – Rizal left Manila
  3. He joined Propaganda Movement and became a Mason and worked with Filipino patriots in seeking reforms.SECRET DEPARTURE FOR SPAIN

    PERSONS WHO KNOWS RIZAL’S DEPARTURE

    • Paciano
    • Antonio Rivera
    • Jesuit Fathers
    • Close Friends
  4. Php 700.00 with diamond ring – given by Paciano to Rizal
    Php 35.00 – allowance per month; to be send by Pacianoand his uncle Antonio
    JOSE MERCADO – name appeared in his passport
    MANUEL T. HIDALGO – sender of telegram; he tells that the Spanish steamer SALVADORAwas scheduled to sail to Singapore
    MAY 1, 1882 – he left Calamba by CARROMATA, reaching Manila after 10 hours
    SANTO DOMINGO CHURCH – he attended the mass before leaving
    JOSE M. CECILIO (Chengoy) – Rizal’s close friend, one of his close friends who know his departure
  5. SINGAPOREFounded by SIR THOMAS RAFFLES
    The SALVADORA reached the English colony of Singapore on May 9. Rizal logged in HOTEL DE LAPAZ for 2 days.

    FIRST TRIP TO SUEZ CANAL

    DJEMNAH – a French steamer; sailed to Europe

    MAY 26 – he saw the coast of AFRICA
    - He called this as “AN INHOSPITABLE LAND BUT FAMOUS”
    ADEN – hotter than the Philippines; he saw camels and Arabian horses
    JUNE 2 – He arrived at the city of SUEZ
    SUEZ CANAL – a historic waterway constructed by ENGR. FERDINAND DE LESSEPS

  6. NAPLES AND MARSEILLESJUNE 11 – Rizal reached Naples, an Italian city
    Rizal was fascinated by MOUNT VESUVIUS and CASTLE OF ST. TELMO. He visited CHATEAU d’LF, where Dantes, hero of the Count of Monte Cristo was imprisoned.
    Rizal stayed here for 2 ½ days.
    BARCELONA
    MAY 16, 1882 – he reached BARCELONA; the greatest city of CATALUÑA and Spain’s 2nd largest city
    LAM RAMBLAS – famous street in Barcelona
    PLAZA DE CATALUÑA – welcome party for Rizal was made by Rizal’s schoolmates at Ateneo
  7. AMOR PATRIO (Love of Country) – he wrote it in Barcelona; this is a nationalistic essay written in Spanish soil under the pseudonym of Dimas – Alang
    • Published in two text

    Spanish – Rizal
    Filipino – M.H. del Pilar

    DIARYONG TAGALOG – first Manila bilingual newspaper
    FRANCISCO CALVO – editor of DiaryongTagalog; member of editorial staff

    • TWO PEN NAMES USED BY RIZAL

    DIMAS – ALANG – used in joining the Masonry
    LAONG LAAN – used in his essay

    • THREE ARTICLES FOR DIARYONG TAGALOG

    Amor Patrio (Love of Country)
    Los Viajes (Travels)
    Revistade Madrid (Review of Madrid) – it was returned to him because of financial reasons

    Then Rizal moves to Madrid.

  8. SAD NEWS FROM HOMESpread of Cholera that was ravaging Manila and other provinces
    Leonor Rivera was getting thinner because of an absence of a loved one.

    LIFE IN MADRID
    - He enrolled at UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL DE MADRID (Central University of Madrid)
    - 2 courses enrolled (MEDICINE, PHILOSOPHY & LETTERS)
    - Took lessons at the Academy of San Carlos (Painting & Sculpture)
    - He also took private lessons in (GERMAN, FRENCH & ENGLISH)

  9. THEY ASKED ME FOR VERSESRizal joined the CIRCULO HISPANO – FILIPINO which is a society of Spaniards and Filipino. Rizal was requested to create a poem which was declaimed upon December 31, 1882.

    RIZAL AS LOVER OF BOOKS

    SEÑOR ROCES – owner of store where Rizal purchased 2ndhand books
    Rizal was deeply affected by BEELCHESS STOWE’S “UNCLE TOM’S CABIN” & EUGENE SUE’S “THE WONDERIGN JEW”.

    Rizal also visited PARIS for the first time and he said that “PARIS IS THE COSTLIEST CAPITAL IN EUROPE”.

  10. RIZAL BECOMES A MASONRizal got contacts with the Liberal and Republican Masons. In 1883, he joined the MASONIC LODGE ACACIA in Madrid adopting the Masonic name DIMAS – ALANG.

    REASONS WHY HE JOINED MASONRY

    • The bad friars in the Philippines, by their abuses unworthy of their priestly habit, drove Rizal to desperation and to masonry.

    He needed to help the masons to fight the bad friars in the Philippines.

    • Upon November 15, 1892 he became the master mason ofLODGE SOLIDARIDAD and on February 15, 1892 he became the master mason of LE GRAND DE ORIENT FRANCE in Paris.
  11. TWO TITANS OF THE BRUSH
    JUAN LUNA – 1st price for his SPOLIARIUM, he received as gold medal
    FELIX HIDALGO – 2nd price for his CHRISTIAN VIRGINS EXPOSE TO THE POPULACETWO COURSES FINISHED IN MADRID

    • Doctor of Medicine
    • Licentiate of Philosophy and Letters
  1. CHAPTER 7:
    PARIS TO BERLIN
    (1885 – 87)
  2. Rizal went to Paris and Germany in order to specialize in ophthalmology.
    He chose this branch because he wanted to cure his mother’s eye ailment.
    IN GAY PARIS (1885-86)After studying at the Central University of Madrid, Rizal, who was then 24 yrs old, went to Paris to acquire more knowledge in ophthalmology.
  3. MAXIMO VIOLA – a medical student and a member of a rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan
    SEÑOR EUSEBIO COROMINAS – editor of La Publicidad
    DON MIGUEL MORAYTA – owner of La Publicidad and a statesman
    Rizal gave Editor Corominas (an article on the Carolines Question)
    NOVEMBER 1885 – Rizal was living in Paris
    He worked as an assistant to Dr. Louis de Weckert, a leading French ophthalmologist.
    JUAN LUNA – great master of the brush; Rizal helped him by posing as model in Luna’s paintings.
    “The Death of Cleopatra” – where Rizal posed as an Egyptian priest
    “The Blood Compact” – Rizal posed as Sikatuna
  4. RIZAL AS MUSICIANRizal had no natural aptitude for music, and this he admitted. He studied music only because many of his schoolmates at Ateneo were taking music lessons.
    He told Enrique Lete that he “learned the solfeggio, piano, and voice culture in one month and a half”.
    He is also a flutist.
    Some of his compositions are:
    AlinMangLahi (Any Race) – a pariotic song which asserts that any race aspires for freedom
    La Deportacion (Deportation) – a sad danza, composed in Dapitan
  5. IN HISTORIC HEIDELBERGFEBRUARY 3, 1886 – Rizal arrived in Heidelberg, a historic city in Germany famous for its old university and romantics surroundings.
    He became popular among the Germans because they found out that he was a good chess player.
    He worked at the University Eye Hospital under the direction of Dr. Otto Becker, distinguished German ophthalmologist.
  6. “TO THE FLOWERS OF HEIDELBERG”APRIL 22, 1886 – Rizal wrote a fine poem entitled “A Las Flores de Heidelberg” (To the Flowers of Heidelberg) because he was fascinated by the blooming flowers along the Neckar River, which is the light blue flower called “forget- me-not”.
    WITH PASTOR ULLMER AT WILHELMSFELD

    Rizal spent a three-month summer vacation at Wilhelmsfeld where he stayed at the place of a Protestant pastor, Dr. Karl Ullmer. The pastor has a wife and two children named Etta and Fritz.

  7. FIRST LETTER TO BLUMENTRITTJULY 31, 1886 – Rizal wrote his first letter to Professor FERDINAND BLUMENTRITT who is the Director of the Ateneo of Leitmeritz, Austria.
    • Blumentritt is an Austrian ethnologist and he has an interest in the Philippine language.

    - Rizal sent Aritmetica (Arithmetic) book to Blumentritt which was published in 2 languages – Spanish and Tagalog – by the University of Santo Tomas Press in 1868.The author was RufinoBaltazar Hernandez.
    - Blumentritt became the best friend of Rizal.

  8. FIFTH CENTENARY OF HEIDELBERG UNIVERSITYThe famous University of Heidelberg held its fifth centenary celebration on August 6, 1886 where Rizal had witnessed the said celebration.

    IN LEIPZIG AND DRESDEN
    AUGUST 14, 1886 – Rizal arrived in Leipzig

    • He attended some lectures at the University of Leipzig on history and psychology.
    • He befriended Prof. Friedrich Ratzel, a famous historian, and Dr. Hans Meyer, German anthropologist.
    • Rizal found out that the cost of living in Leipzig was the cheapest in Europe so he stayed for 2 months and a half.
    • On October 29, he went to Dresden, where he met Dr. Adolph B. Meyer, the Director of the Anthropological and Ethnological Museum.
  9. RIZAL WELCOMED IN BERLIN’S SCIENTIFIC CIRCLESRizal was enchanted by Berlin because of its scientific atmosphere and the absence of race prejudice.
    Some scientists Rizal met are:
    DR. FEODOR JAGOR – German scientist-traveler and author of Travels in the Philippines
    DR. RUDOLF VIRCHOW – famous German anthropologist
    DR. W. JOEST – German geographer
    DR. KARL ERNEST SCHWEIGGER – famous German ophthalmologist
  10. RIZAL’S LIFE IN BERLINFive reasons why Rizal stayed in Berlin:
    • To gain further knowledge of ophthalmology
    • To further his studies of science and languages
    • To observe the economic and political conditions of the German nation
    • To associate with famous German scientists and scholars
    • To publish his novel, Noli Me Tangere

    Rizal worked as an assistant in the clinic of Dr. Scweigger, and at night, he attended lectures in the University of Berlin.
    He also took private lessons in French under Madame Lucie Cerdole.

  11. RIZAL ON GERMAN WOMENRizal sent a letter to his sister, Trinidad, dated on March 11, 1886. In his letter, Rizal expressed his high regard and admiration for German womanhood. Rizal said that German woman is serious, diligent, educated and friendly.

    GERMAN CUSTOMS

    Some of the German customs Rizal admired:

    • On Yuletide season, people will select a pine tree from the bushes and adorned it with lanterns, papers, lights, dolls, candies, fruits, etc.
    • Self-introduction to strangers in a social gathering.
  12. RIZAL’S DARKEST WINTER
    • The winter of 1886 in Berlin was his darkest winter.
    • He lived in poverty because no money arrived from Calamba and he was flat broke.
    • He could not pay his landlord and he was eating only one meal a day.
    • His clothes were old and threadbare.
    • His health broke down due to lack of proper nourishment.
    • This is one of the most memorable days in the life of Rizal.
    • CHAPTER 8:
  1. NOLI ME TANGERE
  2. 1886 (winter) – memorable moment in Rizal’s life
    TWO REASONS:

    • It was a painful episode for he was hungry, sick and despondent in a strange city.
    • A great joy because his novel Noli Me Tangere, was published on March 1887.
  3. IDEA OF WRITING A NOVEL IN THE PHILIPPINES
    Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe – The book that inspired Rizal to write a
    novel about the suffering of the Filipinos to the Spaniards.
    Central University in Madrid – where Rizal started writing the novel
    July 2 1884 – Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines
  4. THE WRITING OF NOLI
    Towards the end of 1884 – Rizal began writing the novel in Madrid and finished ½ of it.
    1885 – he was in Paris, he coninued writing the novel, finishing the ½ of the 2nd half
    Germany – he finished the ¼ of it
    Last 2 chapters – he finished it at Wilhelmsfeld in April – June 1886
    December 1886 – he was in Berlin
    Fernando Canon – where Rizal wrote his worries about the publishing of his novel
  5. MAXIMO VIOLA, SAVIOR OF NOLI
    Dr. Maximo Viola
    - a rich friend of Rizal from Bulacan who financed the publishing the Noli.
    - lives at San Miguel, Bulacan
    - December 25, 1887, he arrived at Berlin
  6. CHAPTER OF ELIAS AND SALOME
    This chapter was deleted for some financial purposes.
    February 11, 1857 – Noli was ready for printing
    Berliner BuchdruckreiActienGesellschaft – a publishing house that charged the lowest rate for publishing Rizal’s novel
    Php 300.00 – the cost of printing for 2,000 copies
  7. PRINTING OF NOLI
    March 29, 1887 – Noli Me Tangere came off the press
    Rizal sent copies to:

    • Blumentritt
    • Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor
    • G. Lopez Jaena
    • Mariano Ponce
    • Feliz R. Hidalgo
  8. THE TITLE OF THE NOVEL
    Noli Me Tangere – “Touch Me Not”
    - from Gospel of Saint John (Chapter 30, Verses 13-17)
    AUTHOR’S DEDICATION
    Rizal dedicated the Noli Me Tangere to the Philippines – “To My Country”
  9. CHARACTERS OF NOLI ME TANGERE & SYNOPSIS OF THE NOVEL
    Crisostomo Ibarra– A young and rich Filipino who studied in Europe/ sweetheart of Maria Clara
    Maria Clara– Daughter of Capitan Tiago
    Padre Damaso– Franciscan friar who had been parish priest of San Diego
    San Diego– Ibarra’s native town for 20 yrs.
    Padre Salvi– young Dominican parish priest of Binondo
    Senor Guevarra– Elderly and Kind lieutenant of guardia civil
    Don Tiburcio– Bogus Spanish Physician
  10. Dona Victoria– wife of Don Tiburcio
    Don Melchor– Captain of Cuadrillores
    Sisa- Formerly a rich girl but became poor because she married a gambler
    Basilio & Crispin– Sons of Sisa/ Sacristans
    Elias– A boatman was a strong silent, peasant youth
    Nor Juan– Architect who constructed the schoolhouse
    November 11th– feast day
    Ibarra’s attacked Padre Damaso produced two result:

    • Engagement to Maria Clara was broken
    • He was excommunicated
  11. Don Alfonso Linares– Cousin of Don Tiburcio
    Dona Consolation– bulgarmistress of Spanish Alferez
    NOLI ME TANGERE is consist of 63 chapters and epilogue
  12. THE NOLI BASED ON TRUTH
    Maria Clara – Leonor Rivera
    Crisostomo Ibarra & Elias – Rizal
    PilosopoTasyo– Paciano
    Padre Salvi– Padre Antonio Piernavieja
    Capitan Tiago – Capitan HilarioSunico of San Nicolas
    DoñaVictorina– DoñaAgustina Medal
    Basilio and Crispin – Crisostomo brother’s of Hagonoy
    Padre Damaso– are the bad friars
  1. CHAPTER 9:
    “ELIAS & SALOME” Missing Chapter of Noli
    • Few people know that there is a missing chapter in the printed Noli Me Tangere, this chapter was included in the original manuscript, written in Rizal’s own handwriting However, it was crossed out in blue pencil so that it was deleted from the printed novel.
  2. WHY RIZAL DELETES THE CHAPTER?
    • It should be recalled that Rizal was in dire financial situation in Berlin during the days when he was putting the finishing touches to the Noli.
    • He knew that the cost of printing is in proportion with the number of pages of the manuscript.
    • Accordingly, he rewrote several chapters making them more compact so that he could economize on the number of pages.
    • He deleted one whole chapter without destroying the story of the novel and this chapter was “Elias and Salome”
    • ECONOMIC was the only reason why this particular chapter was deleted.
    • Elias was adversely affected. It seems that Rizal considered Ibarra a more important character although Elias was nobler.
    • He even killed Elias in the novel and let Ibarra live. Later, he repented having killed Elias.
    • He wrote “im sorry i have killed Elias instead of Crisostomo Ibarra .
    • But when Rizal wrote the Noli his health was very bad and he never believe that he could wrote the continuation and talk about revolution.
    • He have preserve the life of Elias a nobler character, a patriot, unselfish and self-sacrificing, the necessary qualities for a man to lead a revolution.
    • Crisostomo Ibarra was an egoist who decided to provoke a rebellion only when he was injured through his property, his person, his love and all that he held sacred. Success cannot be expected for the enterprise of a man like that.
  3. SYNOPSIS
    OF THE MISSING CHAPTER
  4. In a nipa hut by the placid lake, Salome a winsome girl in her early teens sat on the bamboo batalan sewing a camesa of bright colors. She was waiting for Elias to arrived. She was beautiful “like the flowerets that grow wild not attracting attention at first glance but whose beauty is revealed when we examined them carefully”. When she heard footsteps, she laid aside her sewing, went to the bamboo stair way.
  5. Salome noticed her lover was sad and Pensive. She tried to console him; asking about the girls @ the picnic which the Guardia Civil soldiers disturbed looking for him. Elias told her that there were many beautiful girls among whom was Maria Clara, the sweetheart of a rich young man who just came from Europe.
    Afterwards, the young man rose preparing to leave, speaking in a soft voice, he said “Good-bye, Salome, The sun is setting and it won’t appear good for the people to know that night over took me here”.
  6. Salome was crying, for soon she would leave this house where she grew up. She explained :” It is not right for me to live alone. I’ll go to live with my relatives in Mindoro. Soon I’ll be able to pay the debt my mother left me when she died…to give up this house in which one was born and has grown up is something more than giving up one’s being. A typhoon will come , a freshet and everything will go to the lake”.
    Elias remained silent for a moment, then he held her hands, and asked her: “Have you heard anyone speak ill of you? Have I sometimes worried you? Not that either? Then you are tired with my friendship & want to drive me away.”
  7. Salome answered: “No, don’t talk like that. I am not tired of your friendship. God knows that I am satisfied with my lot. I only desire health that I may work. I don’t envy the rich, the wealthy, but…
    “But what?”
    “Nothing. I don’t envy them as long as I have your friendship”
    …..Then they have conversation. Then Elias said to Salome “Forget me, Forget a love so mad & futile. Perhaps you’ll meet there one who is not like me”
  8. “ Elias , exclaimed the girl reproachfully.”
    “ You have misunderstood me; I speak to you as I would speak to my sister if she were alive; in my words there is not a single complaint against you. Take my advice, go home to your relatives. Here you have no one but me, & the day when I fall into the hands with my pursuers, you will be left alone for the rest of you life. improve your youth & beauty to get a good husband, such as you deserve for you don’t know what it is to live among men”
  9. Salome was thinking that Elias go with her.
    Elias then narrated what happened earlier at the picnic that morning; how he was saved by Ibarra from the jaws of a crocodile. To show his gratitude, he vowed to repay the good deed done by Ibarra to the extend with sacrificing his life. He explained that anywhere he would go, even to Mindoro, the past would still be discovered, sooner or later.
    “Well then”, Salome said, looking @ him tenderly: at least when I’m gone, live here, stay in the house. It will make you remember me; and I will not think in that
  10. distant land that the hurricane had carried my hunt to the lake. When my thoughts turns to these shores. The memory of you and of my house will appear to me together. Sleep where I have slept & dream it will be as though I were beside you.
    “Oh” exclaimed Elias, waving his hand in desperation, “Woman, you’ll make me forget.”
    After disengaging himself from her tender embrace, he left with a heavy heart, following the shadows of somber tree in the twilight. She followed her with her gazed, listening sadly to the fading footsteps in the gathering darkness.
  1. CHAPTER 11
    Back To Calamba, 1887-88
    “I shall return,but I shall find myself isolated; because those who smiled at me before will reserve their rejoicings for another happier being.
    And in the meantime I run after a vain idea, perhaps a false illusion.”
    -Jose Rizal
  2. Rizal was a true Filipino. All the alluring beauties of foreign countries and all the beautiful memories of his sojourn in alien lands could not make him forget of home nor turn his back to his own nationality. True that he studied abroad, acquired the lore and languages of foreign nations, and enjoyed the friendship of many great men of the Western world; but he remained at heart a true Filipino with an unquenchable love for the Philippines and an unshakeable determination to die in the land of his birth.
  3. Thus, after five years of memorable sojourn in Europe, he returned to the Philippines in August, 1887. he practised medicine in Calamba. He operated successfully on his mother’s eyes and lived the quiet life of a country doctor. Unfortunately his enemies, who resented Noli, persecuted him, even menacing his life.
  4. Decision to Return Home…after the publication of the Noli Me Tangere
    Rizal was warned not to return home by:
    *Paciano (his brother)
    *Sivestre Ubaldo (his brother-in-law)
    *Chengoy (Jose M. Cecilio)
    *Other Friends
  5. Reasons why he was determine to return to the Philippines:
    • to operate on his mother’s eyes
    • to serve his people who had long been oppressed by Spanish tyrants
    • to find out for himself how the Noli and his other writings were affecting Filipinos and Spaniards in the Philippines; and
    • to find out why Leonor Rivera had remained silent.
  6. Delightful Trip and Arrival to Manila
    Rizal left Rome by train for Marseilles, a French port
    On July 3, 1887- he boarded the steamer Djemnah.
    On August 6th he arrived in Manila.
    *There were about fifty passengers,
    including 4 English, 2 Germans,
    3 Chinese, 2 Japanese,
    and many Frenchmen.
    *He found Manila the same as
    when he left it five years ago.
  7. Happy Homecoming
    On August 8th, the two days after his arrival in Manila, he reached Calamba.
    His family welcomed him affectionately,
    with plentiful tears of joy.
    Paciano did not leave him during the first days
    after arrival to protect him from enemy assault.
    Rizal, who came to be called “Doctor Uliman”
    because he came from Germany.
    He was able to earn $900 as a physician
    Rizal opened a gymnasium for young folks.
  8. Storm over the “Noli”
    Rizal received a letter from Governor General Emilio Terero to come to Malacañang
    Rizal visited Fr. Francisco Sanchez, Fr. Jose Bech, and Fr. Federico Faura.
    Father Faura ventured an opinion that “everything in it was the truth,” but added: “You may lose your head for it.”
    Don Jose Taviel de Andrade, as bodyguard of Rizal belonged to a
    noble family
  9. The Archbishop of Manila, Msgr. Pedro Payo (a Dominican), sent a copy of the Noli to Father Rector Gregorio Echavarria of the University of Santo Tomas for examination by a committee of the faculty.*(there were no mass imprisonment or mass execution of Filipinos. He refused to be intimidated by the friars who clamored for positive repressive measures against people caught reading the novel and vindictive action against its author.)because of Gov.Gen.Terero
  10. DEFENDERS OF NOLI
    Marcelo H. Del Pilar- editor of La Solidaridad
    -he published a pamphlet entitled “CaiigatCayo”
    CaiigatCayo- it means “Be slippery as an Eel”
    Father Francisco Sanchez- Rizal’s beloved Jesuit professor
    Don SegismundoMoret- a former President of the Council of Minister
    -he read and like the book very much.
    Rev. Vicente Garcia- a Filipino Catholic priest-scholar, a theologian of the Manila Cathedral and a Tagalog translator of the famous Imitation of Christ by Thomas A Kempis
    Father Garcia- writing under the pen name Justo DesiderioMagalang
    -he wrote a defense of the Noli which was published in Singapore as an appendix to a pamphlet dated on July 18, 1888.
  11. Lt. Jose Taviel de Andrade- a Spanish bodyguard,
    -he was assigned as a bodyguard of Rizal by Governor-General Terrero
    - between Lt. Andrade and Rizal, a beautiful friendship bloomed.
    Calamba’sAgrarian Trouble
    - Governor-General Terrero, influenced by a certain facts in Noli Me Tangere, ordered a government investigation of the friars estates to remedy whatever iniquities might have been presents in connection with land taxes and with tenant relations.
    RIZAL AND ANDRADE
  12. A POEM FOR LIPA
    Before Rizal left Calamba in 1888 his friend from Lipa requested him to write a poem in commemoration of the town’s elevation to a villa (city), by virtue of the Becerra Law of 1888. He wrote a poem this was the Himno Al Trabajo(Hymn to Labor). He finished it and sent to Lipa before his departure from Calamba.
  1. Rizal’s Studies and Travels Abroad
    Group #1; DGE9
  2. Chapter 06-09
  3. Spain
    After finishing the 4th year of the medical course in UST, Jose Rizal decided to complete his studies in Spain.
    That time, the Gov’t of Spain was a constitutional monarchy (under a written constitution which granted human right to the people)
    He decided to study in Spain for the following reasons:
    He was disgusted with the method of instruction of the Dominican-owned university and the racial prejudice of the Dominican Professors against Filipino students
    Rizal’s Secret Mission
  4. Rizal’s Secret Mission
    Rizal’s secret mission was to observe keenly the life and culture, languages, and customs, industries and commerce, and governments, and laws of the European nations in order to prepare himself in the mighty task of liberating his oppressed people from Spanish tyranny.
    This was evidenced in his farewell letter which was delivered to his parents.
  5. Spain
    Rizal’s departure for Spain was kept secret to avoid detection by the Spanish authorities and the friars.
    He used the name Jose Mercado, a cousin from Binan.
    Before his secret departure, he wrote a farewell letter for his beloved parents and one for his sweetheart Leonor Rivera.
    On May 3, 1882: Rizal departed on board the Spanish steamer Salvadora bound for singapore.
  6. Singapore
    During the voyage to Singapore, he carefully observed the people and things on board the steamer. There were sixteen passengers including himself.
    To while away the tedious boredom, Rizal played chess with fellow passengers and he won many times because Rizal was a good chess player.
    May 9, 1882: The Salvador docked at Singapore. Rizal landed, registered at Hotel De La Paz and spent two days on sightseeing of the city.
    In Singapore, Rizal transferred to another ship Djemnah.
    On May 17, 1882: Djemnahreached Point Galle, a seacost town in southern Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and Rizal found this place lonely and Quiet.
    The following day, the Djemnahreached Colombo, the capital of Ceylon and Rizal found this place “Beautiful, Smart, and Elegant”
  7. The Djemnah
    From Colombo, it continued the voyage crossing the Indian Ocean to the cape of Guardafui, Africa. Rizal sighted the barren coast of Africa and called it “inhospitable land but famous”.
    Rizal had a stopover at Aden where in he found the city hotter than Manila.
    From Aden, the Djemnah proceeded to the city of Suez, the red sea terminal of the Suez Canal.
  8. Naples and Marseilles
    From the port, the Djemnah proceeded on its way to Europe.
    On June 11, 1882: Rizal reached Naples. The Italian city really pleased him because of its business activity, its lively people, and its panoramic beauty.
    June 12, 1882: The steamer docked at the French Harbor of Marseilles.
  9. Barcelona
    Rizal reached Barcelona on June 16, 1882.
    He thought of the city as ugly, with dirty little inns and inhospitable residents, because he happened to stay upon his arrival at the “town’s most ugly side”.
    Later on, he changed his bad impression and found the city a great city, with an atmosphere of freedom and liberalism, its people were open-hearted, hospitable, and courageous.
  10. “Amor Patrio”
    In Barcelona, Rizal wrote a nationalistic essay entitled “Amor Patrio” (Love of Country), his first article written on Spain’s soil.
    He sent this article to his friend in Manila, BasilioTeodoro Moran, publisher of Diariong Tagalog, the first Manila bilingual newspaper.
    Rizal’s “Amor Patrio” under his pen-name LaongLaan, appeared in print in Diariong Tagalog on August 20, 1882. It was published in two texts-Spanish and Tagalog.
  11. Rizal’s Articles
    Publisher Basilio Moran, deeply impressed by “Amor Patrio” congratulated Rizal and requested for more articles.
    And so, Rizal wrote his second article for Diariong Tagalog entitled “Los Viajes” (Travels)
    His third article was entitled “Revista de Madrid” (Review of Madrid) which he wrote in Madrid on November 29, 1882.
  12. Barcelona
    While he was at Barcelona, Rizal received a sad news about the cholera that was ravaging Manila and the provinces which caused a lot of people’s death.
    Another sad news from the Philippines, was the letter of Chengoy recounting the unhappiness of Leonor Rivera who was getting thinner because of the absence of a loved one.
    And so, Paciano advised Rizal to finish his medical course in Madrid.
  13. Madrid
    Rizal enrolled in the Universidad Central de Madrid in two courses- Medicine and Philosophy and Letters.
    He also studied painting and sculpture in the Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando and took lessons in French, German, and English under private instructors.
    His thirst for knowledge of music, he visited the art galleries and museums and read books on all subjects in order to broaden his cultural background.
  14. Madrid
    Rizal knew that he came to Spain to study and prepare himself for the service to his fatherland.
    He spent his money on food, clothing, lodging, and books.
    He spent his leisure time reading and writing at his boarding house, practicing fencing, shooting at the gymnasium.
    Rizal joined the Circulo Hispano-Filipino (Hispano-Philippine Circle) and wrote a poem entitled “Me Piden Versos” (They ask me for Verses)
  15. Consuelo Ortiga y Perez
    Rizal was not handsome although he possessed an aura of charisma due to his many-splendored talents and noble character which made him attractive to romantic young women.
    No wonder the prettier of Don Pablo’s daughters (Consuelo) fell in love with him.
    He composed a lovely poem entitled “A la Senorita C. O. y P.”
    Suddenly he backed out for two reasons:
    He was still engaged to Leonor Rivera
    His friend and co-worker in the Propaganda Movement, Eduardo de Lete, was madly in love with Consuelo.
  16. Paris
    During Rizal’s first summer vacation in Madrid, he went to Paris from June 17 to August 20, 1883.
    Like all tourists, he enjoyed the attractive sights, the historical places, etc. Although unlike ordinary tourists, Rizal spent many hours in Museums, Botanical gardens, Libraries, Art galleries, and Hospitals.
  17. Rizal as a Mason
    In Spain, Rizal came in close contact with Spanish liberal and republican Spaniards who were mostly masons.
    March 1883, Rizal joined the masonic lodge called Acacia in Madrid. He became a mason so that he could secure Freemasonry’s aid in his fight against the friars in the Philippines.
    Later on, he transferred to Lodge Solidaridadwhere he became a Master Mason.
    He was awarded the diploma as a Master Mason by Le Grand Orient de France in Paris.
  18. Chapter 09-12
  19. Rizal’s Grand Tour of Europe with Viola
    POSTDAM
    -Companion: Dr. Maximo Viola
    -May 11, 1887
    -spring season
    -Rizal’s luggage includes letters from his family and friends.
  20. DRESDEN
    -Regional Floral Exposition
    -Visited Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
    (Museum of Art)
    -Met Dr. Jagor who advised them to wire Blumentritt
    TESCHEN
    -Stopover to wire Blumentritt
  21. LEIMERITZ, BOHEMIA
    -Arrived on May 13, 1887 (1:30 p.m)
    -Meeting with Blumentritt
    -Greeted each other in fluent German
    -They stayed from May 13 to May 16
    BLUMENTRITT
    -Kind-hearted, old Austrian professor
    -Amazed by Rizal
    -helped Rizal &Viola during their stay in Leimeritz
  22. BEAUTIFUL MEMORIES OF LEIMERITZ
    -Enjoyed the hospitality of Blumentritt’s family:
    Rosa(wife), Children(Dora, Conrad and Fritz
    -Was invited to a beer garden
    -The Burgomaster(town mayor) was also amazed by Rizal’s “privileged talent”
    -At the Tourist’s Club of Leimeritz, he praised Austria’s idyllic scenes and its hospitable, nature-loving and noble people.
    -He painted a portrait of Blumentritt and gave it to him.
    -Met a renowned scientist named Dr. Carlos Czelopak.
    -May 16(9:45 A.M) They left Leimeritz by train
  23. PRAGUE
    -Carried letters of recommendation from Dr. Willkomm
    -Visited the tomb of Copernicus, museum of Natural History and the famous cave of San Juan Nepomuceno.
    VIENNA
    -Rizal was fascinated by its beautifulbuildings, religious images, haunting waltzes and majestic charm.
  24. DANUBIAN VOYAGE TO LINTZ
    -May 24, Rizal andViola left Vienna on a river boat
    GENEVA
    -June 19, 1887
    Treated Viola to a blowout
    It was his 26th birthday
    -Spent his 15 delightful days in Geneva
    -June 23, Viola and Rizal parted ways
    *Viola-Barcelona
    *Rizal-Italy
  25. Rizal resents exhibition of Igorots in 1887 Madrid Exposition
    -exposition of the Philippines in Madrid, Spain
    -Sad news:
    Deplorable conditions of the primitive Igorots
    ITALY
    -Turin, Milan, Venice and Florence
    -June 27,1887- Rome
    -June 29- Feast day of St. Peter and St. Paul(visited the Vatican
  26. Hongkong and Macao 1888
    -February 1888
    *full-grown man of 27 years of age
    *practicing physician
    *recognized man-of-letters
    *embittered victim of human iniquities
    -disillusioned dreamer
    *frustrated reformer
  27. Hongkong
    -February 3,1888 (left Manila for Hongkong)
    -February 7(stopover at Amony)
    He was not feeling well
    It was raining hard.
    He heard that the city was dirty.
    -February 8(arrival at Hongkong)
    -Victoria Hotel
    He was welcomed by Filipino residents, including Jose Basa, Balbino Mauricio and Manuel Yriarte.
  28. -Jose Sainz de Varanda
    *former secretary of Governor General Terrero
    *shadowed Rizal’s movement
    *believed to be a spy to Rizal
    MACAO
    -Rizal was accompanied by Basa
    -visited the theatre, casino, cathedral and churches, pagodas, botanical garden and bazaars.
    -Feb.19-hewitnesses a procession
    -Feb.20-returned to Hongkong
  29. Experiences in Hongkong
    1.Noisy celebration of Chinese New Year(Feb.11 to 13)
    2.Boisterous Chinese theatre
    3.Marathon lauriat party
    4.Dominican Order
    5.Hongkong cemeteries
    Departure from hongkong
    -Feb.22, 1888-left for Japan
  30. Romantic Interlude in Japan 1888
    -one of Rizal’s happiest interludes was his visit in the “Land of the Cherry Blossoms” for one month and a half (Feb.28-Apr.13)
    -fell inlove with Seiko Usui(O-Sei-San)
    Rizal Arrives in Yokohama
    -visited by Juan Perez Caballero
    -invited Rizal to live at the Spanish Legation
  31. Rizal accepted it for two reasons:
    1.He could economize his living expenses by staying at the legation.
    2.He had nothing to hide from the prying eyes of the Spanish authorities.
    -March 7( checked out of Tokyo Hotel and lived at the Spanish Legation)
    -He studied the Japanes language and Japanese drama.
  32. Rizal’s Impression of Japan
    Beauty of the country-flowers, mountains, and scenic panoramas.
    The cleanliness, politeness and industry of the Japanese people.
    The picturesque dress and simple charm of the Japanese women
    Few thieves in Japan.
    Beggars were rarely seen.
  33. Romance with O-Sei-San
    -O-Sei-San was a lonely samurai’s daughter of 23 years old and had never yet experienced the ecstacyof true love.
    -She was Rizal’s ideal womanhood: beauty,charm, modesty and intelligence.
    -More than a sweetheart, she was his guide , interpreter and tutor.
    -She improved his knowledge of Nippongo and Japanese history.
  34. Sayonara, Japan
    -On April 13, 1888, he left Japan with a heavy heart for he knew he would never see again Japan and O-Sei-San.
    O-Sei-San after Rizal’s departure
    -She mourned for a long time the loss of her lover. She became resigned to her fate, cherishing unto death the nostalgic memories of her romance with Rizal.
    About 1897, a year after Rizal’s execution, she married Mr. Alfred Chartlon and was blessed with one child named Yuriko.
  35. Chapter 13
  36. Rizal’s visit to the US(1888)
    April 28, 1888: Rizals first time in America
    First went to San Francisco riding the steamer “Blegic”
    All passengers of this ship was under quarantine since there was a cholera epidemic
    Rizal knew that there was no cholera epidemic at the Far East during that time; he then found out that the reason why the ship he rode was placed under quarantine was because of political motivation.
    This is where he witnessed discrimination of Chinese and Japanese by the Americans
    May 4, 1888: Rizal was allowed to go ashore
  37. Rizal’s visit to the US(1888)
    Rizal stayed at the Palace hotel
    Rizal stayed in SF for two day
    May 6, 1888: Rizal left SF for Oakland riding a ferry boat
    In Oakland he boarded a train for his trip across the continent
    May 7, 1888: Rizal was in Reno, Nevada.
    May 8, 1888: Rizal was in Utah and Denver
    May 9, 1888: Rizal was in Colorado
    May 10, 1888: Rizal was in Nebraska
    May 11, 1888: Rizal woke up in Chicago
    May 12, 1888: Rizal was in Canada
    May 13, 1888: Rizal was in Albany
  38. Rizal’s visit to the US(1888)
    May 13, 1888: Rizals grand transcontinental trip ended at exactly 11:10am
    May 13: Rizal was in New York
    May 16, 1888: left NY for Liverpool on board the steamer “the city of rome”
    Rizals good and bad impressions of America:
    Good impression-
    Material progress. All the cities he went to were flourishing.
    The drive and energy of the Americans
    The natural beauty of the land
    The high standard of living and the opportunities of a better life
    The only bad impression of Rizal was that there was no racial equality in America
  39. Chapter 14
  40. Rizal in London(1888-89)
    After visiting the US Rizal lived in London for one year
    Reasons why he chose this English city
    To improve his knowledge of English language
    To study Morga’sSucesos de las Islas Filipinas(only available at the British Museum)
    London was a safe place to continue his fight against Spanish tyranny
    Continued to write for La Solidaridad in defense of his people against spain
    Made a letter for the young women of Malolos
    Had a romance with Gertrude Beckett
    Won a lot of friends during his trans-atlantic voyage from NY to Liverpool
  41. Rizal in London(1888-89)
    Entertained Europeans and American passengers with his yo-yo
    May 24, 1888: Rizal arrived at Liverpool, England
    Lived in Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor’s house for a while.
    Eventually found a boarding place, he was a boarder of the Beckett family
    Rizal did most of his research at the British museum
    Good and Bad news reached Rizal from home
    1. Persecution of Filipinos who signed the Anti-Friar petition
    2. Persecution of the Calamba tenants including Rizal’s family and relatives
    3. Furious attacks on Rizal by Spanish senators
    4. Rizals brother in law was exiled to Bohol
  42. Rizal in London(1888-89)
    A friend of Rizal was arrested and jailed in Bilibid prison for keeping a copy of Noli.
    1. The good news that reached rizal was the defense of Noli by Rev. Vicente Garcia against the friars.
    Annotating Morga’s book was considered his greatest achievement during his stay in London
    Early September 1888, Rizal visited Paris for a week for research
    Rizal was entertained by Juan Luna and his wife during his stay in London
    December 1888: Rizal visited Barcelona and Madrid
    This was where Rizal first met Marcelo H Del Pilar and Mariano Ponce(two titans of the propaganda movement)
    Rizal returned to London and spent Christmas and New year’s day there
  43. Rizal in London(1888-89)
    December 31, 1888: Asociacion La Solidaridad was inaugurated. Rizal was chosen honorary president
    February 15, 1889: La Solidaridad in Barcelona was founded by Graciano Lopez Jaena
    Rizals first article in the La Solidaridad was entitles Los Agricultores Filipinos. Published march 25,1889.
    Wrote the Tagalog version of The women of malolos on Feb 22 1889. This letter was about the Filipino woman and their rights
    Had a romantic interlude with Gertrude Beckett
    The relationship did not last long for Rizal had a mission to accomplish in life
    Before he left London Rizal finished four sculptural work
    1. Prometheus bound
    2. The triumph of death over life
    3. The triumph of science over death
    4. A carving of the heads of the Beckett sisters
    March 19, 1889: left London for paris
    Rizal was sad, he had so many fun memories during his stay in London
  44. Chapter 15
  45. Rizal’s Second Sojourn in Paris and the Universal Exposition of 1889
    Rizal had a hard time looking for living quarters in Paris
    For a short time Rizal lived in the house of his friend Valentin Ventura. This was where he polished the annotated edition of Morga’s book
    He was able to find a room and lived with two other Filipinos, Captain Justo Trinidad and Jose Albert
    Inspite of a joyous lifestyle in Paris, Rizal kept himself busy. Continued researching. Spent most of his time at the National Library
    During his spare time he spent time with his friends and usually had dinner together
  46. Rizal’s Second Sojourn in Paris and the Universal Exposition of 1889
    May 6, 1889: Exposition of paris opened. Rizal was fascinated
    March 19, 1889: Kidlat club was formed by Rizal
    The kidlat club was then replaced by Indios Bravos
    Another secret society the Rizal formed was the R.D.L.M.
    Paris 1890: annotated edition of Morga’sSucesos was published
    All those time that Rizal spent in the National museum helped him enrich his knowledge in history
    Rizal wrote the “Philippines within a colony”
    Wrote the essay”Indolence of the Filipinos”
    Rizal was planning to establish a modern college in Hong Kong
  47. Chapter 16
  48. Rizal left Paris
    On January 28, 1890, Rizal left Paris for Brussels, capital of Belgium.
    Two reasons why Rizal left Paris.
    The cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition.
    The gay social life of the city hampered his literary works.
  49. Life in Brussels
    Rizal was accompanied by Jose Albert when he moved to Brussels. They lived in a modest boarding house on 38 Rue Philippe Champagne. Later Albert left the city, and was replaced by Jose Alejandro, an engineering student.
    In Brussels, Rizal was busy writing his second novel, El Filibusterismo which is a continuation of the Noli. Aside from writing its chapters, he wrote articles for La Solidaridad.
  50. Articles Published in La Solidaridad
    “A La Defensa” (To La Defensa), April 90, 1889
    “La Verdad Para Todos” (The Truth For All), May 31, 1889
    “Vicente Barrantes’ Teatro Tagalo” June 15 ,1889
    “Una Profanacion” (A Profanation), July 31,1889
    “Verdades Nuevas” (New Truths), July 31, 1889
    “Crueldad” (Cruelty), August 15, 1889
    “Diferencias” (Differences), September 15, 1889
    “Inconsequencias” (Inconsequences), November 30, 1889
    “Llanto y Risas” (Tears and laughter), November 30, 1889
    “Ingratitudes” (Ingratitude), January 15, 1890
  51. Rizal Criticizes Madrid Filipino for Gambling
    In Brussels, Rizal received news from Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura that the Filipinos in Spain were destroying the good name of their nation by gambling too much. This urged Rizal to do something about it. Rizal wrote to M.H. Del Pilar on May 28 , 1890 to remind the Filipinos in Madrid that they did not come to Europe to gamble, but to work for their Fatherland’s freedom.
  52. Bad news from home and preparation to go home
    Letters from home which Rizal received in Brussels worried him. The Calamba agrarian trouble was getting worse. The management of Dominican hacienda continually raised the land rents until such time that Rizal’s father refused to pay his rent. The Domincan Order filed a suit in court to dispossess the Rizal family of their lands in Calamba.
    In the face of sufferings which afflicted his family, Rizal planned to go home. He could not not stay in Brussels writing a book while his parents, relatives, and friends in the Philippines were persecuted. Rizal wrote a letter to Ponce, dated July 18, 1890, he expressed his determination to go home
  53. Decision to go to Madrid
    All his friends were horrified by Rizal’s plan to return to the Philippines. They warned him of the danger that awaited him at home. But Rizal ignored the dire warning of his friends. Something, however, happened that suddenly made him change his mind. It was a letter from Paciano which related that they lost the case against the Dominicans in Manila, but they appealed it to the Supreme Court in Spain, hence a lawyer was needed to handle it in Madrid. Rizal wrote to M.H. del Pilar on June 20, 1890 retaining the latter’s services as lawyer. He further informed M.H. del Pilar that he was going to Madrid , in order to supervise the handling of the case. In another letter to Ponce, written at Brussels, July 29, 1890, Rizal announced that he was leaving Brussels at the beginning of the following month and would arrived in Madrid about the 3rd or 4th August.
  54. Chapter 17
  55. Rizal Arrived in Madrid
    On August, 1890, Rizal arrived in Madrid, Spain.
    Rizal failed to seek justice for his family and the Calamba tenants.
    Dissapointment piled on Rizal from the two fought duels with Antonio Luna and Wencenslao Retana. His fiance also left him and married a british engineer.
    Jose Rizal displayed resilient strength of character and survived.
  56. Failure to get justice for family
    Rizal immediately asked for help of the filipino colony to seek justice for his family and for the oppressed Calamba tenants.
    Asociacion Hispano-Filipina, and the liberal Spanish newspapers help fight securing justice for the Calamba tenants and Rizal’s family.
    Terrible news reached Rizal in Madrid as he was fighting for justice. Rizals brother in law, Silvestre Ubaldo received a copy of ejecment order by the dominicans against Franciso Rizal and other Calamba tenants.
    In desperation, Rizal sought the aid of the liberal Spanish statesmen, who were former members of the ministry. Unfortunately they just gave honeyed words of sympathy, and nothing else.
    Rizal was urged to see Queen Regent Maria Cristina, but with the lack of gold and connections, Rizal was unable to do so.
  57. Rizal’s Eulogy to Panganiban and his duels
    Rizal was devastated by the death of his friend, Jose Ma. Panganiban. He died on August 19, 1890, after a lingering illness
    After the death of Jose Ma. Panganiban Rizal wrote a great eulogy to Panganiban
    August, 1890, Rizal attended a social reunion of the Filipinos in Madrid and had with a fight with Atonio Luna.
    Rizal challenged Retana to a duel. Retana is a talented Spanish scholar and Rizal’s bitter enemy of the pen
    Late 1890 there arose an unfortunate rivalry between Rizal and M.H. del Pilar for supremacy. An election took place Rizal won but declined the coveted position and left Madrid.
  58. Chapter 18
  59. With the Bousteads in Biarritz
    Rizal arrived in Biarritz at the beggining of February, 1891 and was welcomed by the Bousteads family. The one month vacation made Rizal forget the bitter memories in Madrid and had an affection for Nelly Boustead
    On March 29, 1891 his departure from Blumentritt he finished the manuscript of El Filibusterismo
  60. To Paris and back to Brussels
    On March 30, 1891 Rizal went back to Paris and stayed at the home of his friend, Valentin Ventura, on 4 Rue de Chateaudum and wrote Jose Ma. Basa in Hong Kong on April 4 expressing his desire to go to British Colony to practise aphthalmology in order to earn his living.
    By mid of April, 1891 Rizal went back to Brussels and was welcomed by the Jacoby sisters
    From Brussels on May 1, 1891 he notified the Propaganda authorities of his retirement. Rizal also immediately stopped writing for the La Solidaridad after his retirement.
    On May 30, 1891 the revision of the El Fili was completed and was ready for Published.
  61. Chapter 19
  62.  EL FILIBUSTERISMO PUBLISHED IN GHENT
    • October,1887 – Jose Rizal begun writing El Fili. While practicing medicine in Calamba.• 1888- in London he made changes in the plot and add more characters in Paris and Medrid. He finished his manuscript in Biarriztz on March 19, 1891• three years have spent to finish this novel• July 5,1891 – Rizal left Brussels for Ghent because 1. The cost of printing there was cheaper than Brussels2. To escape from the enticing attraction of Petite Suzanne.• Jose Alejandro (form Pamp.) and Edilberto Evangelista (from Manila)- his competitors• Owning a limited funds Rizal board at a cheap boarding house with Alejandro.
  63. • Tea, sugar, alcohol and a box of biscuits – is divided to save money• F. MEYER-VAN LOO PRESS – is the press found by Rizal to publish his novel. He pawned his jewels in order to pay down payment. Our hero became running low of budget. But he received money from basa and P200 from Rodrigues Arias for the copies of Monrga’sSucesos sold in Manila.• On August 6 – he suspended the publish of the novel because of the lack of funds. On this date he wrote a letter to Basa in Hong Kong enclosing clipping, the secong part is advanced and stoped at page112.• Ventura, savior of the Fili – same as the novel in Noli Rizal became broke and he wants to burn his work but whenever he realize there still more people who love their country• Valentin Ventura in Paris gave Rizal funds to resume the novel.
  64. • September 18,1891 came off the press, immediately sent two copies to hongkong and Basa other for Sixto Lopez• Jose Rizal sent the orig. manuscript to Valentin who load to publish the novel• He also sent copies to Blumentritt, Mariano Ponce, G. Lopez Jaena, TH Padro De Travera, Antonio and Juan Luna and more• El Nevo Regimen issued about the novel of October. • Dedicated to Gom-bur-za – students, travelers, OFW• 10 000 – valentine Venture, 279 pages of long sheets of paper
  65. Chapter 20
  66.  Ophthclmic surgron in Hong Kong
    Rizal went to hongkong after the novel published from europe. He left Europe because of the ff.1. life was unbearable in Europe because of his political diff. with MH del and other fillipino in spain.• 2.to be near his idolized philippines and family.• October 3, 1891 – he left for hongkong.• two weeks publication of el fili he went to paris to say good bye to lunasmpardo de taveras, Venturas and other friends,• German ladies was gossiping about Rizal because he is alone and the only asian in the train. though Rizal can understand german he didnt bother.
  67. • suddenly the train door opened and a German said if Rizal is such a gentleman he would close the door for them then after Rizal heard it he stood up• And close it. Afterward he talk to the German ladies and they were embarrassed.November 20 1891- he arrived in hongkong welcoming him with Filipino relativesDecember 1, 1891 – Rizal is asking a permission to go back to Philippines.25 persons from calamba with Neneng, Sisa,Lucia, Paciano, and his father was caught too. • Queen Regent of Spain- Hidalgo also states that we wants to ensure justice. but the queen won’t listenbefore Christmas of 1891- this father arrived and his brother in law named Silvestre Ubaldo afterwards his mother and sisters followed though her mother is almost blind because ofthe spaniards.
  68. Ophthalimic Surgeon – he studied in hongkong and had a friend dr named Lorenzo P. Marques who helped him build a wide clientele and the dr. always turned over of eye cases.Brithish, Chinese, Portuguese and americans was his clients.Finally the vision of the mother of rizal was able to see because of himself
    Writing in Hong kong – Angkarapatannangtao. La Nacion Espanola. Sa MgaKababayan.Decision to return to Manila- May 1892 Rizal Made up his mind. This decision surprised the ff.1. To confer with Governador Despujol regarding his borneo colonization project.2. To establish Liga Filipina in manila3.To prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Midrid.
  69. Last HongKong Letters – June 19, they celebrated the bday of Rizal in hongkongJune 20, he wrote a letter for his death he gave it to Dr, Marques to be open after his death. Rizal falls into Spanish trap- anti religious and anti patriotic agitation.
  70. Chapter 21
  71. SECOND HOMECOMING AND THE LIGA FILIPINA
    August 1887 was his first homecoming .. he arrived in manila in June 1892arrival in manila with sister – he arrived in June 26 with Lucia going to the hotel de oriente with a major.Visiting friends in central Luzon- malolos(bulacan), san fernando (pampanga), tarlac, bacolor (pampanga). On the next day he returned to manila, the houses he visited was raid by the guardia civil who took some copies of noli and el fili and some subversive pamphlets.
    Other interview with Desoujol – after the arrival Rizal has been interviewed by Governor General Despujol.Founding of the Liga Filipina- a civic league of Filipinos, which he desired to established and its role on the socio-economic life of the people.
  72. President – Ambrosio SalvadorSecretary – Deodato ArellanoTreasurer – BonifacioArevolaAgustin de la Rosa – FisalConditions of Liga Filipina1. To unite the archipelago into one compact and homogenous body2. Mutual Protection in every want and Necessity3. Defense against all violence and injustice.4. Encourage of Education, agriculture and commerce. 5.Study of application and reformes.
  73. motto of liga Filipina: ONE LIKE THEM (unus instar omnium)Rizal Arrested and Jailed in fort Santiago – July 6 he resume his interview with the governor general but suddenly showed him a printed leaflets were entitled PobresFrailes (Poor fiars) under the authorship of Fr. Jacinto from paris. Rizal insisted having those leaflets where they arrived in hongkong that found nothing.
  74. Chapter 22
  75. Rizal’s Exile in Dapitan (1892-96)
    During these times, Rizal practiced medicine, pursued scientific studies, continued his artistic and literary works, widened his knowledge of languages, promoted community development projects,  and engaged in farming and commerce.
    Rizal lived in the house of the  commandant, Captain Carnicero, where they had a good warden-prisoner relationship.
    >Sept. 21, 1892 - Rizal, Carnicero & Equilor won P20,000 in the lottery.
    >During thes times, Rizal had a long  and scholarly debate with Father Pastells on religion which revealed Rizal’s anti-Catholic idea.
    Fr. Pablo Pastells – the Jesuit superior during the time Rizal was exiled in Dapitan. Pastells was Rizal’s spiritual director.
  76. Rizal-Pastells Debate on religion(5 Letters):
    I. 3 September 1892
    Rizal thanks Fr. Pastells for his gift of a book by Sarda. Father Pastells goes into lengthy philosophic-religious disquisitions – Sends him a booklet, Contemptus Mundi.
    II. 11 November 1892
    Rizal prefers “light” to “shade”. He bears his misfortunes philosophically. Fr. Pastells is deeply interested in Rizal’s eternal salvation.
    III. 9 January 1893
    Rizal explains his concept of God. Fr. Pastells sent him a long letter much like a sermon on religion.
    IV. 4 April 1893
    Rizal reiterates his concept of God, his belief in revelation, and his attitude toward miracles. Father Pastells discusses Rizal’s religious views.
    V. June 1893
    Rizal asks that he and Fr. Pastells end their correspondence.
    “I deeply appreciate your desire to enlighten me and illumine my path. But I fear it is a useless task…” -Rizal
  77. >30 Mar 1893 - Juan Lardet – wrote a letter to Rizal, apologizing for his inuslting comments about Rizal.
    Juan Lardet - a French businessman who had a quarrel with Rizal because he purchased some poor-quality lumber from Rizal.
    >Father Sanchez - Rizal’s favorite Jesuit who tried to persuade Rizal to discard his unorthodox views on the Catholic religion.
    >Ferdinand Blumentritt - Rizal’s close friend who translated the latter’s first book, Noli me Tangere, into German and wrote the preface to Rizal’s second book, El filibusterismo.
    Rizal wrote to him in December 19, 1893 telling him about Rizal’s idyllic life in Dapitan.
    >Florencio Namanan - aka “Pablo Mercado”. The one who was hired by the Recollect friars so spy on Rizal.
  78. >Rizal was also an eye specialist. He cured many rich patients such as Don Ignacio Tumarong &Don Florencio Azacarraga. Rizal became interested in local medicine and the use of medicinal plants. He studied  their  curative values  for the poor patients who could not  afford  to  buy  imported medicine, he prescribed the local medicinal plants.
    >Building Dapitan:
    - Rizal built a water system without any help from the government.
    - He got rid of the malaria infested Dapitan.
    - He remodelled the town plaza and arranged a lighting system all around the town.
    > 1893 - Rizal established a school, gave the children free education.
  79. Chapter 23
  80. Last Trip Abroad
    -Rizal travelled from Dapitan to Manila-He missed the regular steamer to Spain “Isla de Luzon”-Stayed on board Spanish cruiser “Castilla”-August 26, 1896, Andres Bonifacio and Katipunan start revolution in Balintawak-Rizal leaves for Spain aboard “Isla de Panay”-Upon leaving for Spain, Rizal receives 2 letters of introduction for the Minister of War and the Minister of Colonies-Upon arriving in Singapore, Rizal was urged by fellow Filipinos to stay. He refused as he had given his word to Gov. Gen. Blanco-Upon arriving in Barcelona, Rizal was arrested and taken to the fortress Monjuich-General Despujol sends Rizal back to Manila to be tried by court
  81. Chapter 24
  82. Last Homecoming and Trial
    -Rizal is kept under heavy guard while in transit from Barcelona to Manila-October 8, a friendly soldier tells Rizal that newspapers are full of stories about him being blamed for the revolution-October 11, Rizal’s diary is confiscated by Spanish authorities-Upon arriving in Singapore, friends attempt to rescue Rizal by means of inciting Habeus Corpus-Unfortunately, the request is denied as the ship bearing Rizal to Manila os classified as a warship and as such is out of Singaporean jurisdiction
  83. -November 3, the “Colon” arrives in Manila-Rizal transferred to Fort Santiago-Rizal subjected to 5-day investigation by Judge Advocate, Colonel Franciso Olive-Rizal chooses Don Luis Taviel de Andrade to defend him in court-Rizal pleads “not guilty” to inciting rebellion-8:00 am, December 26, 1896, Rizal’s mock trial begins-Rizal sentenced by the court to death-December 28th, Polavieja (new Gov. Gen.) approves Rizal’s execution by firing squad

November 22, 2011

The Setting

Filed under: Rizal @ 8:34 am and

Spanish Expeditions to the Philippines

The Magellan Expedition

Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese in the service of the Spanish crown, was looking for a westward route to the to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. On March 16, 1521, Magellan’s expedition landed on Homonhon island in the Philippines. He was the first European to reach the islands. Rajah Humabon of Cebu was friendly with Magellan and embraced Christianity, but their enemy, Lapu-Lapu was not. Humabon wanted Magellan to kill Lapu-Lapu while Magellan wanted to convert Lapu-Lapu into Christianity. On April 17, 1521, Magellan sailed to Mactan and ensuing battle killed Magellan by the natives lead by Lapu-Lapu. Out of the five ships and more than 300 men who left on the Magellan expedition in 1519, only one ship (the Victoria) and 18 men returned to Seville, Spain on September 6, 1522. Nevertheless, the said expedition was considered historic because it marked the first circumnavigation of the globe and proved that the world was round. Juan Sebastian de Elcano, the master of ship “Concepcion” took over the command of the expedition after the death of Magellan and captained the ship “Victoria” back to Spain. He and his men earned the distinction of being the first to circumnavigate the world in one full journey. After Magellan’s death in Cebu, it took 16 more months for Elcano to return to Spain. The Magellan expedition started off through the westward route and returning to Spain by going east; Magellan and Elcano’s entire voyage took almost three years to complete.

Spain sends other expedition

After the Spain had celebrated Elcano’s return, King Charles I decided that Spain should conquer the Philippines. Five subsequent expeditions were then sent to the Islands. These were led by Garcia Jofre Loaisa (1525), Sebastian Cabot (1526), Alvaro de Saavedra (1527), Rudy Lopez de Villalobos (1542) and Miguel Lopez de Legazpi (1564). Only the last two actually reached the Philippines; and only Legazpi succeeded in colonizing the Islands.

 

The Villalobos Expedition

Ruy Lopez de Villalobos set sail for the Philippines from Navidad, Mexico on November 1, 1542. He followed the route taken by Magellan and reached Mindanao on February 2, 1543. He established a colony in Sarangani but could not stay long because of insufficient food supply. His fleet left the island and landed on Tidore in the Moluccas, where they were captured by the Portuguese. Villalobos is remembered for naming our country “Islas Filipinas,” in honor of King Charles’ son, Prince Philip, who later became king of Spain.

The Legazpi Expedition

Since none of the expedition after Magellan from Loaisa to Villalobos had succeeded in taking over the Philippines, King Charles I stopped sending colonizers to the Islands. However, when Philip II succeeded his father to the throne in 1556, he instructed Luis de Velasco, the viceroy of Mexico, to prepare a new expedition – to be headed by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, who would be accompanied by Andres de Urdaneta, a priest who had survived the Loaisa mission. On February 13, 1565, Legaspi’s expedition landed in Cebu island. After a short struggle with the natives, he proceeded to Leyte, then to Camiguin and to Bohol. There Legaspi made a blood compact with the chieftain, Datu Sikatuna as a sign of friendship. Legaspi was able to obtain spices and gold in Bohol due to his friendship with Sikatuna. On April 27, 1565, Legaspi returned to Cebu; destroyed the town of Raja Tupas and establish a settlement. On orders of the King Philip II, 2,100 men arrived from Mexico. They built the the port of Fuerza de San Pedrowhich became the Spanish trading outpost and stronghold for the region. Hearing of the riches of Manila, an expedition of 300 men headed by Martin de Goiti left Cebu for Manila. They found the islands of Panay and Mindoro. Goiti arrived in Manila on May 8, 1570. At first they were welcomed by the natives and formed an alliance with Rajah Suliman, their Muslim king but as the locals sensed the true objectives of the Spaniards, a battle between the troops of Suliman and the Spaniards erupted. Because the Spaniards are more heavily armed, the Spaniards were able to conquer Manila. Soon after Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrived to join Goiti in Manila. Legaspi built alliances and made peace with Rajahs Suliman, Lakandula and Matanda. In 1571, Legaspi ordered the construction of the walled city of Intramuros and proclaimed it as the seat of government of the colony and the capital of the islands. In 1572, Legaspi died and was buried at the San Agustin Church in Intramuros. In 1574, Manila was bestowed the title “Insigne y Siempre Leal Ciudad de España” (Distinguished and ever loyal city of Spain) by King Philip II of Spain.

Why the Philippines was easily conquered?

Through largely outnumbered, the Spaniards who came to colonize the Philippines easily took control of our country. How did this happen?

The best possible explanation is that the natives lacked unity and a centralized form of government. Although the barangays already functioned as units of governance, each one existed independently of the other, and the powers that each Datu enjoyed were confined only to his own barangay. No higher institution united the barangays, and the Spaniards took advantage of this situation. They used the barangays that were friendly to them in order to subdue the barangays that were not. Continue to Spain as Colonial Masters.

The Spaniards as Colonial Masters

Spain reigned over the Philippines for 333 years, from 1565 to 1898. since Spain was far from the country, the Spanish king ruled the Islands through the viceroy of Mexico, which was then another Spanish colony. When Mexico regained its freedom in 1821, the Spanish king ruled the Philippines through a governor general. A special government body that oversaw matters, pertaining to the colonies assisted the king in this respect. This body became known by many names. Council of the Indies (1565-1837), Overseas Council (1837-1863), and Ministry of the Colonies (1863–1898). It is implemented the decrees and legal codes Spain promulgated although many of its provisions could not apply to condition in the colonies. It also exercised legislative and judicial powers.
The Political Structure

Spain established a centralized colonial government in the Philippines that was composed of a national government and the local governments that administered provinces, cities, towns and municipalities. With the cooperation of the local governments the national government maintained peace and order, collected taxes and built schools and other public works.

The Governor General
As the King’s representative and the highest-ranking official in the Philippines, the governor general saw to it that royal decrees and laws emanating from Spain
were implemented in the Philippines. He had the power to appoint and dismiss public officials, except those personally chosen by the King. He also supervised all government offices and the collection of taxes. The governor general exercised certain legislative powers, as well. He issued proclamations to facilitate the implementation of laws.

The Residencia
This was a special judicial court that investigates the performance of a governor general who was about to be replaced. The residencia, of which the incoming governor general was usually a member, submitted a report of its findings to the King.

The Visita
The Council of the Indies in Spain sent a government official called the Vistador General to observe conditions in the colony. The Visitador General reported his findings directly to the King.

The Royal Audiencia
Apart from its judicial functions, the Royal Audiencia served as an advisory body to the Governor General and had the power to check and a report on his abuses. The Audiencia also audited the expenditures of the colonial government and sent a yearly report to Spain. The Archbishop and other government officials could also report the abuses of the colonial government to be Spanish king. Despite all these checks, however, an abusive governor general often managed to escape stiff fines, suspension, or dismissal by simply bribing the Visitador and other investigators.

The Provincial Government
The Spaniards created local government units to facilitate the country’s administration. There were two types of local government units – the alcadia and the corregimiento. The alcadia, led by the alcalde mayor, governed the provinces that had been fully subjugated: the corregimiento, headed by corregidor, governed the provinces that were not yet entirely under Spanish control. The alcalde mayors represented the Spanish king and the governor general in their respective provinces. They managed the day-to-day operations of the provincial government, implemented laws and supervised the collection of taxes. Through they were paid a small salary, they enjoyed privileges such as the indulto de comercio, or the right to participate in the galleon trade.

The Municipal Government
Each province was divided into several towns or pueblos headed by Gobernadordcillos, whose main concerns were efficient governance and tax collection. Four lieutenants aided the Governardorcillo: the Teniente Mayor (chief lieutenant), the Teniente de Policia (police lieutenant), the Teniente de Sementeras (lieutenant of the fields) and the Teniente de Ganados (lieutenant of the livestock).
The Encomienda System

Spain owed the colonization of the Philippines to Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, who valiantly and loyally served the Spanish crown. To hasten the subjugation of the country, King Philip II instructed Legazpi to divide the Philippines into large territories called encomiendas, to be left to the management of designated encomenderos.

To show his gratitude to his conquistadors, the King made them the first encomenderos in the colony. As the King’s representatives in their respective encomiendas, the encomenderos had the right to collect taxes. However, the encomiendas were not there to own. The encomenderos were only territorial overseers who had the duty to:

1) protect the people in the encomienda;

(2) maintain peace and order;

(3) promote education and health programs; and

(4) help the missionaries propagate Christianity. Continue to The Galleon Trade.

The Galleon Trade
 When the Spaniards came to the Philippines, our ancestors were already trading with China, Japan, Siam, India, Cambodia, Borneo and the Moluccas. The Spanish government continued trade relations with these countries, and the Manila became the center of commerce in the East. The Spaniards closed the ports of Manila to all countries except Mexico. Thus, the Manila–Acapulco Trade, better known as the “Galleon Trade” was born. The Galleon Trade was a government monopoly. Only two galleons were used: One sailed from Acapulco to Manila with some 500,000 pesos worth of goods, spending 120 days at sea; the other sailed from Manila to Acapulco with some 250,000 pesos worth of goods spending 90 days at sea. It also allowed modern, liberal ideas to enter the country, eventually inspiring the movement for independence from Spain. And because the Spaniards were so engrossed in making profits from the Galleon Trade, they hardly had any time to further exploit our natural resources.
Basco’s Reforms
Filipino farmers and traders finally had a taste of prosperity when Governor General Jose Basco y Vargas instituted reforms intended to free the economy from its dependence on Chinese and Mexican trade. Basco implemented a “general economic plan” aimed at making the Philippines self sufficient. He established the “Economic Society of Friends of the Country”, which gave incentives to farmers for planting cotton, spices, and sugarcane; encouraged miners to extract gold, silver, tin, and copper; and rewarded investors for scientific discoveries they made.
Tobacco Monopoly
The tobacco industry was placed under government control during the administration of Governor General Basco. In 1781, a tobacco monopoly was implemented in the Cagayan Valley, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Isabela, Abra, Nueva Ecija, and Marinduque. Each of these provinces planted nothing but tobacco and sold their harvest only to the government at a pre-designated price, leaving little for the farmers. No other province was allowed to plant tobacco. The government exported the tobacco to other countries and also part of it to the cigarette factories in Manila.The tobacco monopoly successfully raised revenues for the colonial government and made Philippine tobacco famous all over Asia. Continue to Secularization of Priests During the Spanish Period.
The Secularization of Priests During Spanish Period 

The Opening of the Suez Canal

The Suez Canal, which connected the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, was inaugurated in 1869.  It was built by a French engineer named Ferdinand de
Lesseps. By passing through the Canal, vessels journeying between Barcelona and Manila no longer had to pass by the Cape of Good Hope, at the southern tip of Africa. Thus, they were able to shorten their traveling time from three months to 32 days. Thanks to the Suez Canal, trading in the Philippines became increasingly profitable. More and more foreign merchants and businessmen came to the colony, bringing with them a lot of progressive ideas. The Filipinos not only gained more knowledge and information about the world at large; they also gained the desire for freedom and improvement in their lives.

The Secularization Controversy
Two kinds of priests served the Catholic Church in the Philippines. These were the regulars and the seculars. Regular priests belonged to religious orders. Their main task was to spread Christianity. Examples were the Franciscans, Recollects, Dominicans, and Augustinians. Secular priests did not belong to any religious order. They were trained specifically to run the parishes and were under the supervision of the bishops. Conflict began when the bishops insisted on visiting the parishes that were being run by regular priests. It was their duty, they argued, to check on the administration of these parishes. But the regular priests refused these visits, saying that they were not under the bishop’s jurisdiction. They threatened to abandon their parishes if the bishops persisted. In 1774, Archbishop Basilio Santa Justa decided to uphold the diocese’s authority over the parishes and accepted the resignations of the regular priests. He assigned secular priests to take their place. Since there were not enough seculars to fill all the vacancies the Archbishop hastened the ordination of Filipino seculars. A royal decree was also issued on November 9, 1774, which provided for the secularization of all parishes or the transfer of parochial administration from the regular friars to the secular priests.
The regulars resented the move because they considered the Filipinos unfit for the priesthood. Among other reasons they cited the Filipinos’ brown skin, lack of education, and inadequate experience. The controversy became more intense when the Jesuits returned to the Philippines. They had been exiled from the country because of certain policies of the order that the Spanish authorities did not like. The issue soon took on a
racial slant. The Spaniards were clearly favouring their own regular priest over Filipino priests. Monsignor Pedro Pelaez, ecclesiastical governor of the Church, sided with the Filipinos. Unfortunately, he died in an earthquake that destroyed the Manila Cathedral in 1863. After his death, other priests took his place in fighting for the secularization movement.  Among them were Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora.

TheDeath of Gomburza & The Propaganda Movement
In February 17, 1872, Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jocinto Zamora (Gomburza), all Filipino priest, was executed by the Spanish colonizers on charges of subversion. The charges against Fathers Gomez, Burgos and Zamora was their alleged complicity in the uprising of workers at the Cavite Naval Yard. The death of Gomburza awakened strong feelings of anger and resentment among the Filipinos. They questioned Spanish authorities and demanded reforms. The martyrdom of the three priests apparently helped to inspire the organization of the Propaganda Movement, which aimed to seek reforms and inform Spain of the abuses of its colonial government.

The illustrados led the Filipinos’ quest for reforms. Because of their education and newly acquired wealth, they felt more confident about voicing out popular grievances. However, since the illustrados themselves were a result of the changes that the Spanish government had been slowly implementing, the group could not really push very hard for the reforms it wanted. The illustrados did not succeeded in easing the sufferings of the Filipinos; but from this group arose another faction called the intelligentsia.  The intelligentsia also wanted reforms; but they were more systematic and used a peaceful means called the Propaganda Movement.
Goals of the Propaganda Movement

Members of the Propaganda Movement were called propagandists or reformists. They worked inside and outside the Philippines. Their objectives were to seek:

▪Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain
▪Equal status for both Filipinos and Spaniards
▪Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes
▪Secularization of Philippine parishes.
▪Recognition of human rights

The Propaganda Movement never asked for Philippine independence because its members believed that once Spain realized the pitiful state of the country, the Spaniards would implement the changes the Filipinos were seeking.

The Propagandists
 The Filipinos in Europe were much more active in seeking reforms than those in Manila. They could be divided into three groups: The first included Filipinos who had been exiled to the Marianas Islands in 1872 after being implicated in the Cavite Mutiny.  After two many years in the Marianas, they proceeded to Madrid and Barcelona because they could no longer return to the Philippines. The second group consisted of illustrados in the Philippines who had been sent to Europe for their education. The third group was composed of Filipinos who had fled their country to avoid punishment for a crime, or simply because they could not stand Spanish atrocities any longer. Still, not all Filipinos living in Spain were members of the Propaganda Movement. Jose Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena and Marcelo H. del Pilar were it most prominent members.

Lopez Jaena was a brilliant orator who wrote such pieces as “Fray Botod,” “Esperanza,” and “La Hija del Fraile,” which all criticized the abuses of Spanish friars in the Philippines. Del Pilar was an excellent writer and speaker who put up the newspaper Diariong Tagalog in 1882. His favorite topic was the friars. Some of his most popular writings included “Caiingat Cayo”, “Dasalan at Tocsohan,” and “Ang Sampung Kautusan ng mga Prayle”. “Caingat Cayo” was a pamphlet answering the criticisms received by Jose Rizal’s novel Noli Me Tangere. “Dasalan…” was parody of the prayer books used by the Church, while “Ang Sampung Kautusan…” was a satirical take on the Ten Commandments, which highly ridiculed the Spanish friars.

Jose Rizal was recognized as the great novelist of the Propaganda Movement. He was the first Filipino become famous for his written works. He wrote a poem entitled “Sa Aking mga Kababata” when he was only eight years old. His novels, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, clearly depicted the sufferings of the Filipinos and the rampant abuses committed by the friars in the colony. Because of his criticisms of the government and the friars, Rizal made a lot of enemies. He was executed at Bagumbayan (later renamed Luneta Park and now called Rizal Park) on December 30, 1896. The writings produced by the Propaganda Movement inspired Andres Bonifacio and other radicals to establish the Katipunan and set the Philippine Revolution in place. Continue to La Solidaridad & La Liga Filipina.

La Solidaridad & La Liga Filipina

La Liga Filipina
In 1892, Jose Rizal (full name: Jose Protacio Mercado Rizal y Alonzo) returned to the Philippines and proposed the establishment of a civic organization called “La Liga Filipina.” On July 3, 1892, the following were elected as its officers: Ambrosio Salvador, president: Agustin dela Rosa, fiscal; Bonifacio Arevalo, treasurer; and Deodato Arellano, secretary. Rizal functioned as its adviser.

La Liga Filipina aimed to:

▪Unite the whole country
▪Protect and assist all members
▪Fight violence and injustice
▪Support education
▪Study and implement reforms

La Liga Filipina had no intention of rising up in arms against the government; but the Spanish officials still felt threatened. On July 6, 1892 only three days after La Liga Filipina’s establishment, Jose Rizal was secretly arrested. The next day, Governor General Eulogio Despujol ordered Rizal’s deportation to Dapitan, a small, secluded town in Zamboanga.

La Liga Filipina’s membership was active in the beginning; but later, they began to drift apart. The rich members wanted to continue supporting the Propaganda Movement; but the others seemed to have lost all hope that reforms could still be granted. Andres Bonifacio was one of those who believed that the only way to achieve meaningful change was through a bloody revolution.

La Solidaridad
 In order to help achieve its goals, the Propaganda Movement put up its own newspaper, called La Solidaridad. The Soli, as the reformists fondly called their official organ, came out once every two weeks. The first issue saw print was published on November 15, 1895. The Solidaridad’s first editor was Graciano Lopez Jaena. Marcelo H. del Pilar took over in October 1889. Del Pilar managed the Soli until it stopped publication due to lack of funds.

Why the Propaganda Movement Failed?
The propaganda movement did not succeed in its pursuit of reforms. The colonial government did not agree to any of its demands. Spain itself was undergoing a lot of internal problems all that time, which could explain why the mother country failed to heed the Filipino’s petitions. The friars, on the other hand, were at the height of their power and displayed even more arrogance in flaunting their influence. They had neither the time nor the desire to listen to the voice of the people.

Many of the reformists showed a deep love for their country, although they still failed to maintain a united front. Because most of them belonged to the upper middle class, they had to exercise caution in order to safeguard their wealth and other private interests. Personal differences and petty quarrels, apart from the lack of funds, were also a hindrance to the movements success.Lastly, no other strong and charismatic leader emerged from the group aside from Jose Rizal. Continue to The Katipunan.

The Katipunan
Finally Starts a Revolution
The Katipunan is born Andres Bonifacio was also a member of La Liga Filipina, although he soon lost hope in gaining reforms though peaceful means. This feeling was especially heightened when Jose Rizal was exiled to Dapitan. Bonifacio became convinced that the only way the Philippines could gain independence was through a revolution.

Bonifacio then founded the “Katastaasang Kagalanggalangang Katipuanan ng mga Anak ng Bayan” (KKK) on July 7, 1892 in a house on Azcarraga street (now Claro M. Recto), in Tondo Manila.

The Katipunan had colorful beginnings. As a symbol of the member’s loyalty, they performed the solemn rite of sanduguan (blood compact), wherein each one signed his name with his own blood..

The members agreed to recruit more people using the “triangle system” of enlistment. Each original member would recruit tow new members who were not related to each other. Each new member would do the same thing, and so on down the line. Members were also asked to contribute one Real (about 25 centavos) each month in order to raise funds for the association.
The KKK members agreed on the following objectives:

▪ The political goal was to completely separate the Philippines from Spain after declaring the country’s independence.
▪ The moral goal was to teach the Filipinos good manners, cleanliness, hygiene, fine morals, and how to guard themselves against religious fanaticism..
▪ The civic goal was to encourage Filipinos to help themselves and to defend the poor oppressed.

The “Kataastaasang Sanggunian” (supreme council) was the highest governing body of the Katipunan. It was headed by a supremo, or president. Each province had a “Sangguaniang Bayan” (Provincial Council) and each town had a “Sangguniang Balangay” (Popular Council).

The Leaders of the Katipunan:
▪ Deodato Arellano -Supremo
▪ Ladislao Diwa -Fiscal
▪ Teodora Plata -Secretary
▪ Valentine Diaz -treasurer
▪ Andres Bonifacio -controller

Jose Rizal and the Katipunan
Jose Rizal never became involved in the organization and activities of the Katipunan; but the Katipuneros still looked up to him as a leader. In fact, Rizal’s name was used as a password among the society’s highest-ranking members, who were called bayani.

Andres Bonifacio had already known Rizal during his La Liga Filipina days, although Rizal did not know Bonifacio personally Nevertheless, Bonifacio so respected Rizal’s intelligence and talent that in June 1896, he sent Dr. Pio Valenzuela to Dapitan to seek Rizal’s advice on the planned revolution.

Rizal told Valenzuela that the timing was not right for a revolution. The people were not yet ready and they did not have enough weapons. He suggested that the Katipunan obtain the support of wealthy and influential Filipinos first, in order to gain financial assistance. He also recommended Antonio Luna as commander of its armed forces, since Luna had much knowledge and expertise in military tactics.

Valenzuela returned to Manila on June 26 and relayed Rizal’s advice to Bonifacio, who admitted that it would indeed be fatal for the Filipinos to fight without enough weapons. However, there was no stopping the Revolution. Bonifacio ordered his men to prepare for battle. He directed them to store enough food and other supplies. Battle plans were made with the help of Emilio Jacinto. It was suggested that the revolutionary headquarters be located near the seas or mountains to provide for an easy retreat, if necessary.

The Katipunan is Discovered
Rumors about a secret revolutionary society had long been in circulation, although no solid evidence could be found to support them. The big break as far as the Spanish authorities was concerned, came on August 19, 1896 when a KKK member, Teodoro Patiño told his sister Honoria about the existence of the Katipunan. Patiño was a worker in the printing press of Diario de Manila. Honoria was then living with nuns in a Mandaluyong orphanage.
The information upset Honoria so much that she told the orphanage’s Mother Superior, Sor Teresa de Jesus, what her brother had revealed. Sor Teresa suggested they seek the advice of Father Mariano Gil, the parish priest of Tondo. After hearing Patiño’s revelations, Father Mariano Gil-accompanied by several Guardias Civiles immediately searched the premises of Diario de Manila and found evidence of the Katipunan’s existence. The governor general was quickly informed. The printing press was padlocked and hundreds of suspected KKK members were arrested.

November 18, 2011

Syllabus in Rizal

Filed under: Rizal @ 9:23 am and

COURSE SYLLABUS

 

SUBJECT (3 units): RIZAL
COURSE TITLE: Life and Works of Rizal

 

I. Course Description & Objectives

 

A study of the life of Dr. Jose Rizal, national hero and martyr, and of his important works, particularly the “Noli Me Tangere” and the “El Filibusterismo” in their unexpurgated editions.

 

At the end of the course, the student is expected to:

  1. Analyze and understand the life, works and writings of Rizal particularly his moral and intellectual legacies to the Filipino youth.
  2. Conceptualize and make connection on the relevance of Rizal’s teachings to contemporary situations.
  3. Gain inspiration and insight from the experience of Rizal as a son, student, patriot and nationalist.
  4. Imbibe the spirit of patriotism and nationalism.

 

II. Course Classification

Required for all baccalaureate degree program.

No prerequisite subject

 

III. Grading System:

 

Test and Quizzes –                                    25%

Projects /Requirements -                      25%

Oral Participation/Class standing –    25%

Major Examination –                                 25%

Total –       100% (60% passing grade)

 

IV. General Requirement of the Course:

 

Attendance

Educational Trips

Notebook

Portfolio

 

V. Course Outline

 

Time Allotment

Topic

References

Mid-term

I. The Setting

Week 1 & 2

A. Philippine society under Spanish rule

Agoncillo, Chapter 5-7

Week 3

B. Development of Filipino Nationalism

Guerroro, Chapter I

Week 4

II. The making of a leader
A. Family background of Rizal and its influence on the development of his nationalism

Guerrero, Chapter I-II

Week 5

B. Rizal’s educational experience
Early schooling at the traditional village school
Studies at the Ateneo and UST
C. Early literary works

Guerrero, Chapter III-VII

Week 6

III. The moral and intellectual legacies
A. Rizal’s teachings as expressed in his speech (1884) and letters to parents

Guerrero, Chapter VIII

Week 7 & 8

B. Noli: Philosophical and sociological interpretations

Guerrero, Chapter IX-X

Week 9

C. Essays and letters e.g. Annotations to Morga’s Sucesos de Las Islas Filipinas & letter to young women of Malolos

Guerrero, Chapter XI
Guerrero, Chapter XII

Final Term

 

Week 10

Rizal’s major essays e.g. The Indolence of the Filipinos, The Philippines Within a Century, etc.
Educational trip to Rizal Shrine

Guerrero, Chapter XII

Week 11 & 12

D. Rizal’s contributions to the reform movement
E. Fili: Study of a revolution that failed

Guerrero, Chapter XIII
Guerrero, Chapter XIV


Week 13

F. La Liga Filipina
IV. Consequences of Rizal’s activities and writings

Guerrero, Chapter XV
Guerrero, Chapter XVI

Week 14

A. Rizal’s exhile in Dapitan
B. Trial and execution of Rizal
V. Final works

Guerrero, Chapter XVI-XVII
Guerrero, Chapter XIX-XX

Week 15

A. Rizal’s philosophica; and religious ideas
B. Rizal’s Mi Ultimo Adios

Guerrero, Chapter XX

Week 16

VI. Rizal: Martyr and national hero

Epilogue

Week 17

VII. Relevance of Rizal

 

VI. Textbooks Adopted

The First Filipino

by Leon Ma. Guerrero

 

VII. Other References

Rizal: Makabayan at Martir (by Austin Coates)

Salin ni Nilo Ocampo

Jose Rizal: Filipino Doctor and Patriot

by Jose Fernandez

Life, Works and Writings of Rizal

by Sonia Zaide & Gregorio Zaide

The Pride of the Malay Race

by Palma, Rafael

A Nation Aborted

by Quibuyen, Alonzo

Rizal: A Filipino Nationalist & Patriot

by: Fernandez, Perfecto

Rizal: A Filipino Nationalist & Patriot

by Coates,  Austin

Rizal in Saga, A Life for Student Fans

by Nick Joaqui

Rizal Without an Overcoat

By: Ambet Ocampo

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