- CHAPTER 1:
- A HERO IS BORN
“I was born in Kalamba on the 19th of June 1881
between eleven and twelve o’clock at night,
a few days before the full moon”
- Jose Rizal
- JUNE 19, 1861 – the day when Jose Rizal was bornJOSE RIZAL
- The greatest hero of the Philippines
- “many – splendored genius”
- dowered by God superb “intellectual”,
- “moral” and “physical qualities”
- a man of many talents
- a martyr and a patriot
- WORLD WHEN RIZAL WAS BORN
PAX HISPANICA – reigned over the archipelago
GOV. JOSE LEMERY – the governor general
– a good militarist & established politico military over Visayas & Mindanao
GARGANTUAN, CHINA – prustratedand impotent to stop over foreign devils
OCTOBER 22, 1860 – Convention of Peking
1850-1864 – TAIPING REBELLION
IMPERIALIST WESTERN POWERS – victories over China and tried it on Japan
1854 – COMMODDORE MATTHEW C. PERRY – he unlocked Japan
- JUNE 19, 1861 – Rizal was born
JUNE 22, 1861 – baptismal of Rizal
FATHER RUFINO COLLANTES – baptized Rizal
FATHER PEDRO CASAÑAS – Rizal’s godfather (ninong)
MARIANO HERBOSA – nephew of Father Casañas and will marry Lucia
JOSE PROTACIO RIZAL MERCADO Y ALONZO REALONDA
– the complete name of Jose Rizal
- FRANCISCO MERCADO RIZAL
- May 11, 1818 (birthdate)
- He studied Latin and Philosophy in College of San Jose in Manila
- His mother died, then he moved to Calamba to became a tenant farmer in a Dominican estate
- June 28, 1848 – he married Teodora Alonzo Realonda
- January 5, 1898 ; he died at 80 in Manila
- TEODORA ALONZO REALONDA
- November 8, 1826 (birthdate)
- College of Santa Rosa
- August 16, 1911 ; she died at 85
- THE RIZAL CHILDREN
- LUCIA JOSE
(died at 3)
- JOSEFA SOLEDAD
- RIZAL’S ANCESTRY
DOMINGO LAM – CO – great – great grandfather
- A Chinese immigrant from Chinchew “China’s City of Spring”
- He was married to INES DE LA ROSA
1731- He adopt the name MERCADO meaning MARKET
FRANCISCO MERCADO – Domingo Lam-
Co’s son who married CIRILA BERNACNA
JUAN MERCADO – Francisco’s son who married CIRILA ALEJANDRO
FRANCISCO MERCADO (Rizal’s Father) – son of Juan Mercado
- RIZAL’S ANCESTRY
LAKAN – DULA – descendant
EUGENIO URSUA – great – great grandfather of Rizal
- He is married to BENIGNA and they have a daughter named REGINA
REGINA – married to MANUEL DE QUINTOS and they have a daughter named BRIGIDA
BRIGIDA – married to LORENZO ALBERTO and they have their sons and daughters named NARCISA,TEODORA, GREGORIO, JOSE and MANUEL
RIZAL – “racial”; means “new pasture” and “green field”
- PROOFS THAT RIZAL FAMILY BELONGS TO WELL TO DO FAMILY
- They have a large stone house
- They have a home library with 1000 volumes of books
- First to sent their children in Manila
- They own a carjuahe
- CHAPTER IV:
- TRIUMPHS IN THE ATENEO
- SAN JUAN DE LETRAN – Dominican – owned college and a rival of Ateneo de Manila
ATENEO MUNICIPAL – formerly known as EscuelaPia, a charity school for poor boys in Manila which was established by 1817 and later became Ateneo de Manila.Rizal took and passed the examination in COLLEGE OF SAN JUAN DE LETRAN but he enrolled in ATENEO when he came back to Manila.
- RIZAL ENTERS ATENEOFATHER MAGIN FERRANDO (college registrar) – refused to admit Jose Rizal because ;
- He was late for registration
- He was sickly and undersized for his age
MANUEL XEREZ BURGOS – nephew of Father Burgos; Rizal was admitted to Ateneobecause of him
RIZAL – surname used by Jose Rizal because Mercado became under suspicion by the Spanish authorities.
MERCADO – surname used by Paciano
TITAY – owner of the boarding house where Rizal boarded to settle the bill owed by Titay by about Php300.00
- JESUIT SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONReasons why Jesuit System was advance than other college
- It trained the character of students by rigid discipline and religious instruction.
- It promotes physical culture, humanities and scientific studies.
- Aside from academic courses leading to AB, it offers vocational course in agriculture, commerce, mechanics and surveying.
- They were given splendid professors.
- They acquired prestige as an excellent college for boys.
- TWO GROUPS OF STUDENTRoman Empire (internos/boarders) -RED FLAG
Carthaginian Empire (externos/non-boarders) -BLUE FLAG
RAYADILLO – official uniform of Ateneo students
- FATHER JOSE BECH – first teacher of Rizal in Ateneo
Rizal was placed as an externo but a week after he showed his progress and after a month he became the emperor.SANTA ISABEL COLLEGE – where Rizal took his Spanish lessons during recess and paid it for Php 3.00
Rizal returned to Calamba for his vacation. Saturnina brought him to Tanawan to visit their mother to cheer him up. After the vacation he returned to Ateneo for his second year. He is now living at DOÑA PEPAY, an old landlady with widowed daughter and four sons.
- SECOND YEAR IN ATENEO(1873-1874)He again became an emperor; he also received excellent grades in all subjects and a gold medal. At March 1874, he returned to Calamba for his vacation.
PROPHECY OF MOTHER’S RELEASE
DoñaTeodora was released in the jail after 3 months like what Jose Rizal said.
St. JOSEPH – Rizal was comparable because of his interpretation about his mother’s release.
- TEENAGE INTEREST IN READING
TWO FAVORITE NOVELS OF RIZALTHE COUNT OF MONTE CRISTO by Alexander Dumas
TRAVEL IN THE PHILIPPINES by Feodor Jagor
UNIVERSAL HISTORY by Cesar Cantus
– he wishes to buy
THIRD YEAR IN ATENEO (1874-1875)
He only got 1 medal in his Latin subject, then on March 1875 he returned to Calamba
- FOURTH YEAR IN ATENEO (1875-1876)JUNE 16,1875 – Rizal became an interne in Ateneo
FATHER FRANCISCO SANCHEZ – Rizal’s favorite teacher
Rizal won 5 medals and topped in all subjects and on March, 1876 he returned to Calamba.
Rizal became the pride of the Jesuits and he obtained highest grades in all subjects. He received the degree of Bachelor of Arts with highest honors during commencement exercise.
- EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES IN ATENEO
- He was an emperor and a campus leader outside.
- Secretary of the Marian Congregation
- Member of Academy of Spanish Literature
- Member of Academy of Natural Sciences
FATHER JOSE VILLACLARA – advised Rizal to stop communing with the muses but to pay more attention to practical studies.
Rizal studied painting at AGUSTIN SAEZ and sculpture under ROMUALDO DE JESUS, a Filipino sculptor.
- SCULPTURAL WORKS IN ATENEOTHE VIRGIN MARY – he carved an image with Batikuling (Phil. Hardwood) with his pocket knife
FATHER LLEONART – requested Rizal to carved an image of SACRED HEART OF JESUS
POEMS MADE BY RIZAL IN ATENEO
DoñaTeodora was the first one to discover Rizal’s poetical talent while Fr. Sanchez helped Rizal to develop his talent.
Poems made by Rizal:
- Mi Primera Inspiration (My First Inspiration) – dedicated to Rizal’s mother
- Through Education Our Motherland Receives Light
- The Intimate Alliance between Religion and Good Education
- To the Child
- To the Virgin Mary
- DRAMATIC WORK IN ATENEOFather Sanchez requested Rizal to wrote a drama based with ST. EUSTACE THE MARTYR and on June 2, 1876, Rizal had finished the drama.
FIRST ROMANCE OF RIZAL
SEGUNDA KATIGBAK – a 14 yr. old Batangueña from Lipa whom Rizal first fell inloved with but Segundawas already engaged to Manuel Luz.
MARIANO KATIGBAK – brother of Segunda
LA CONCORDIA COLLEGE – where Segunda and Olimpia (Rizal’s sister) studied’
- CHAPTER 5:
- AT THE UNIVERSITY OF SANTO TOMAS
- 2 courses enrolled at UST
- Philsophyand Letters (1877 – 1878)
Mother’s Opposition to Higher Education
- Don Francisco and Paciano wanted Jose to pursue higher learning
- Dona Teodora opposed this
- RIZAL ENTERS THE UNIVERSITY
- April 1877, Rizal at 16 years old, entered University of Santo Tomas
2 reasons why he enrolled Philosophy and Letters
- His father liked it
- He was not sure what career to pursue
Father Pablo Ramon – Rector of the Ateneo, Rizal asked for advice on the choice of career
Rizal studied Cosmology, Metaphysics, Theodicy, and History of Philosophy
He took up a medical course 1878-1879 because;
- he followed AteneoRector’s advice
- wanted to be able to cure his mother’s growing blindness
- FINISHES SURVEYING COURSE IN ATENEO 1878
- He took a vocational course in Ateneo during his first term in UST
- The course lead to the title peritoagrimensor(expert surveyor)
- He passed the final examination at the age of 17
- He was granted the title on November 25, 1881
- His loyalty to Ateneocontinued
President of the Academy of Spanish Literature
Secretary of the Academy of Natural Sciences
Secretary of the Marian Congregation
- ROMANCES WITH OTHER GIRLS
- SEGUNDA KATIGBAK
14 yr. old Batanguena and engaged to Manuel Luz
- “MISS L”
A girl with seductive eyes
The romance died a natural death because:
- The sweet memory of Segunda was still fresh in his heart
- His father did not like the family of “Miss L”
- - LEONOR VALENZUELA
Daughter of Capitan Juan and CapitanaSandayValenzuela, their neighbors who were from Pagsanjan, Laguna
Her pet name was “Orang”
Rizal sent notes to her made with invisible ink (salt solution)
- LEONOR RIVERA
- Jose boarded in Casa Tomasina (No. 6 Calle Santo Tomas, Intramuros)
- Daughter of his landlord-uncle from Camiling, Antonio Rivera
- She was a student at La Concordia College, also the school of Soledad, Jose’s youngest sister
- Born in Camiling, Tarlac on April 11, 1867
- She used the name “Taimis” in her letters to Rizal
- VICTIM OF SPANISH OFFICER’S BRUTALITY
- Setting: Dark night, summer vacation 1878. Calamba
- He passed by a lieutenant of the Guardia Civil but failed to recognize the latter
- Insulted, the lieutenant slashed Jose’s back with his sword
- Jose reported to General Primo de Rivera, Spanish governor general, but no resolution was done because of racial discrimination
- TO THE FILIPINO YOUTH (1879)
-Literary contest by Artistico-Literario (Artisitic- Literary Lyceum)
- Rizal, 18 years old, submitted his poem entitled A La Juventud Filipina(To the Filipino Youth)
- The first prize, a feather shaped, gold ribbon decorated silver pen was given to Rizal
- In the poem, Rizal beseeched the Filipino to rise from lethargy, to let their genius fly swifter than the wind and descend with art science to break the chains that have long bound the spirit of the people.
- The poem is a classic. Two reasons:
- It was the first great poem in Spanish written by a Filipino whose merit was recognized by Spanish literary authorities
- It expressed for the first time the nationalistic concept that the Filipinos, and not the foreigners were the “fair hope of the Fatherland.”
- THE COUNCIL OF THE GODS (1880)
Another literary contest by the Artistic-Literary Lyceum to commemorate the fourth centennial of the death of Cervantes, Spanish and author of Don Quixote.
Manuel De Cervantes – Spain’s glorified man of letter
- Rizal submitted an allegorical drama,El Consejo de los Dioses (The Council of the Gods)
- The allegory was based on Greek classics
- Rizal was aided by Father Rector of the Ateneo in securing the needed reference materials
- The contest was participated by priest, laymen, professors of UST, newspapermen and scholars.
- Rizal won the first price; he received a gold ring engraved with bust of Cervantes.
- D.N. Del Puzo – a Spanish writer won the 2nd price
- OTHER LITERARY WORKS
1879: Abd-el-Azis y Mahoma
A poem, declaimed by an Atenean, manuel Fernandez on December 8, 1879 in honor of the Ateneo’sPatroness
1880: Junto al Pasig(Beside the Pasig)
A zarzuela, staged by the Ateneans on December 8, 1880 on the Feast Day of the Immaculate Conception, Patroness of the Ateneo. Rizal wrote it as President of the Academy of Spanish Literature
1880: A Filipinas
A sonnet, for the album of the Society of Sculptors
Rizal urged all Filipino artist to glorify the Philippines
1881: Al M.R.P. Pablo Ramon
A poem, an expression of affection to Father Pablo Ramon, the Ateneorector
- RIZAL’S VISIT TO PAKIL AND PAGSANJAN
May 1881 – Jose, along with his sisters Saturnina, Maria, and Trinidad and female friends went on a pilgrimate to Pakil, famous shrine of the Birhen Maria de los Dolores.
- They boarded a casco(a flat-bottom sailing vessel) from Calamba to Pakil, Laguna
- They stayed at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Manuel Regalado, parents of Nicolas, Rizal’s friend in Manila
- The company witnessed the famous turumba, the people dancing in honor of the miraculous Birhen Maria de los Dolores
- Rizal was infatuated by VicentaYbardolaza
She was skillful in playing the harp at the Regalado home
- Rizal and his party then went to Pagsanjan for two reasons
- It was the native town of Leonor Valenzuela
- To see the world famed Pagsanjan Falls
- CHAMPION OF FILIPINO STUDENTS
- There were frequent student brawls between the Filipinos and the Spaniards
- 1880: Rizal founded Companerismo(Comradeship), a secret society of Filipino UST students. The members were called “Companions of Jehu”.
- He was the chief of the society.
- His cousin, GalicanoApacible was the secretary.
- In one of the skirmishes, Rizal was wounded on the head.Hisfriends brought him to Casa Tomasinawhere Leonor Rivera took care of him.
- UNHAPPY DAYS AT THE UST
Rizal was unhappy in the Dominican institution because:
- The Dominican professors were hostile to him
- The Filipino students were racially discriminated against by the Spaniards
- The method of instruction was obsolete and repressive.
He failed to win high scholastic honors due to the attitude of his professors.
- DECISION TO STUDY ABROAD
Rizal decided to study in Spain after finishing the fourth year of his medical course.
The people who approved this are the following:
- His older brother Paciano
- His sisters Saturnina (Neneng) and Lucia
- Uncle Antonio Rivera
- The Valenzuela family
- Some friends
The people who did not know of his decision are the following:
- Rizal’s parents
- Leonor Rivera
- Spanish authorities
- CHAPTER 6:
IN SUNNY SPAIN
- MAY 3, 1882 – Rizal left Manila
- He joined Propaganda Movement and became a Mason and worked with Filipino patriots in seeking reforms.SECRET DEPARTURE FOR SPAIN
PERSONS WHO KNOWS RIZAL’S DEPARTURE
- Antonio Rivera
- Jesuit Fathers
- Close Friends
- Php 700.00 with diamond ring – given by Paciano to Rizal
Php 35.00 – allowance per month; to be send by Pacianoand his uncle Antonio
JOSE MERCADO – name appeared in his passport
MANUEL T. HIDALGO – sender of telegram; he tells that the Spanish steamer SALVADORAwas scheduled to sail to Singapore
MAY 1, 1882 – he left Calamba by CARROMATA, reaching Manila after 10 hours
SANTO DOMINGO CHURCH – he attended the mass before leaving
JOSE M. CECILIO (Chengoy) – Rizal’s close friend, one of his close friends who know his departure
- SINGAPOREFounded by SIR THOMAS RAFFLES
The SALVADORA reached the English colony of Singapore on May 9. Rizal logged in HOTEL DE LAPAZ for 2 days.
FIRST TRIP TO SUEZ CANAL
DJEMNAH – a French steamer; sailed to Europe
MAY 26 – he saw the coast of AFRICA
- He called this as “AN INHOSPITABLE LAND BUT FAMOUS”
ADEN – hotter than the Philippines; he saw camels and Arabian horses
JUNE 2 – He arrived at the city of SUEZ
SUEZ CANAL – a historic waterway constructed by ENGR. FERDINAND DE LESSEPS
- NAPLES AND MARSEILLESJUNE 11 – Rizal reached Naples, an Italian city
Rizal was fascinated by MOUNT VESUVIUS and CASTLE OF ST. TELMO. He visited CHATEAU d’LF, where Dantes, hero of the Count of Monte Cristo was imprisoned.
Rizal stayed here for 2 ½ days.
MAY 16, 1882 – he reached BARCELONA; the greatest city of CATALUÑA and Spain’s 2nd largest city
LAM RAMBLAS – famous street in Barcelona
PLAZA DE CATALUÑA – welcome party for Rizal was made by Rizal’s schoolmates at Ateneo
- AMOR PATRIO (Love of Country) – he wrote it in Barcelona; this is a nationalistic essay written in Spanish soil under the pseudonym of Dimas – Alang
- Published in two text
Spanish – Rizal
Filipino – M.H. del Pilar
DIARYONG TAGALOG – first Manila bilingual newspaper
FRANCISCO CALVO – editor of DiaryongTagalog; member of editorial staff
- TWO PEN NAMES USED BY RIZAL
DIMAS – ALANG – used in joining the Masonry
LAONG LAAN – used in his essay
- THREE ARTICLES FOR DIARYONG TAGALOG
Amor Patrio (Love of Country)
Los Viajes (Travels)
Revistade Madrid (Review of Madrid) – it was returned to him because of financial reasons
Then Rizal moves to Madrid.
- SAD NEWS FROM HOMESpread of Cholera that was ravaging Manila and other provinces
Leonor Rivera was getting thinner because of an absence of a loved one.
LIFE IN MADRID
- He enrolled at UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL DE MADRID (Central University of Madrid)
- 2 courses enrolled (MEDICINE, PHILOSOPHY & LETTERS)
- Took lessons at the Academy of San Carlos (Painting & Sculpture)
- He also took private lessons in (GERMAN, FRENCH & ENGLISH)
- THEY ASKED ME FOR VERSESRizal joined the CIRCULO HISPANO – FILIPINO which is a society of Spaniards and Filipino. Rizal was requested to create a poem which was declaimed upon December 31, 1882.
RIZAL AS LOVER OF BOOKS
SEÑOR ROCES – owner of store where Rizal purchased 2ndhand books
Rizal was deeply affected by BEELCHESS STOWE’S “UNCLE TOM’S CABIN” & EUGENE SUE’S “THE WONDERIGN JEW”.
Rizal also visited PARIS for the first time and he said that “PARIS IS THE COSTLIEST CAPITAL IN EUROPE”.
- RIZAL BECOMES A MASONRizal got contacts with the Liberal and Republican Masons. In 1883, he joined the MASONIC LODGE ACACIA in Madrid adopting the Masonic name DIMAS – ALANG.
REASONS WHY HE JOINED MASONRY
- The bad friars in the Philippines, by their abuses unworthy of their priestly habit, drove Rizal to desperation and to masonry.
He needed to help the masons to fight the bad friars in the Philippines.
- Upon November 15, 1892 he became the master mason ofLODGE SOLIDARIDAD and on February 15, 1892 he became the master mason of LE GRAND DE ORIENT FRANCE in Paris.
- TWO TITANS OF THE BRUSH
JUAN LUNA – 1st price for his SPOLIARIUM, he received as gold medal
FELIX HIDALGO – 2nd price for his CHRISTIAN VIRGINS EXPOSE TO THE POPULACETWO COURSES FINISHED IN MADRID
- Doctor of Medicine
- Licentiate of Philosophy and Letters
- CHAPTER 7:
PARIS TO BERLIN
(1885 – 87)
- Rizal went to Paris and Germany in order to specialize in ophthalmology.
He chose this branch because he wanted to cure his mother’s eye ailment.
IN GAY PARIS (1885-86)After studying at the Central University of Madrid, Rizal, who was then 24 yrs old, went to Paris to acquire more knowledge in ophthalmology.
- MAXIMO VIOLA – a medical student and a member of a rich family of San Miguel, Bulacan
SEÑOR EUSEBIO COROMINAS – editor of La Publicidad
DON MIGUEL MORAYTA – owner of La Publicidad and a statesman
Rizal gave Editor Corominas (an article on the Carolines Question)
NOVEMBER 1885 – Rizal was living in Paris
He worked as an assistant to Dr. Louis de Weckert, a leading French ophthalmologist.
JUAN LUNA – great master of the brush; Rizal helped him by posing as model in Luna’s paintings.
“The Death of Cleopatra” – where Rizal posed as an Egyptian priest
“The Blood Compact” – Rizal posed as Sikatuna
- RIZAL AS MUSICIANRizal had no natural aptitude for music, and this he admitted. He studied music only because many of his schoolmates at Ateneo were taking music lessons.
He told Enrique Lete that he “learned the solfeggio, piano, and voice culture in one month and a half”.
He is also a flutist.
Some of his compositions are:
AlinMangLahi (Any Race) – a pariotic song which asserts that any race aspires for freedom
La Deportacion (Deportation) – a sad danza, composed in Dapitan
- IN HISTORIC HEIDELBERGFEBRUARY 3, 1886 – Rizal arrived in Heidelberg, a historic city in Germany famous for its old university and romantics surroundings.
He became popular among the Germans because they found out that he was a good chess player.
He worked at the University Eye Hospital under the direction of Dr. Otto Becker, distinguished German ophthalmologist.
- “TO THE FLOWERS OF HEIDELBERG”APRIL 22, 1886 – Rizal wrote a fine poem entitled “A Las Flores de Heidelberg” (To the Flowers of Heidelberg) because he was fascinated by the blooming flowers along the Neckar River, which is the light blue flower called “forget- me-not”.
WITH PASTOR ULLMER AT WILHELMSFELD
Rizal spent a three-month summer vacation at Wilhelmsfeld where he stayed at the place of a Protestant pastor, Dr. Karl Ullmer. The pastor has a wife and two children named Etta and Fritz.
- FIRST LETTER TO BLUMENTRITTJULY 31, 1886 – Rizal wrote his first letter to Professor FERDINAND BLUMENTRITT who is the Director of the Ateneo of Leitmeritz, Austria.
- Blumentritt is an Austrian ethnologist and he has an interest in the Philippine language.
- Rizal sent Aritmetica (Arithmetic) book to Blumentritt which was published in 2 languages – Spanish and Tagalog – by the University of Santo Tomas Press in 1868.The author was RufinoBaltazar Hernandez.
- Blumentritt became the best friend of Rizal.
- FIFTH CENTENARY OF HEIDELBERG UNIVERSITYThe famous University of Heidelberg held its fifth centenary celebration on August 6, 1886 where Rizal had witnessed the said celebration.
IN LEIPZIG AND DRESDEN
AUGUST 14, 1886 – Rizal arrived in Leipzig
- He attended some lectures at the University of Leipzig on history and psychology.
- He befriended Prof. Friedrich Ratzel, a famous historian, and Dr. Hans Meyer, German anthropologist.
- Rizal found out that the cost of living in Leipzig was the cheapest in Europe so he stayed for 2 months and a half.
- On October 29, he went to Dresden, where he met Dr. Adolph B. Meyer, the Director of the Anthropological and Ethnological Museum.
- RIZAL WELCOMED IN BERLIN’S SCIENTIFIC CIRCLESRizal was enchanted by Berlin because of its scientific atmosphere and the absence of race prejudice.
Some scientists Rizal met are:
DR. FEODOR JAGOR – German scientist-traveler and author of Travels in the Philippines
DR. RUDOLF VIRCHOW – famous German anthropologist
DR. W. JOEST – German geographer
DR. KARL ERNEST SCHWEIGGER – famous German ophthalmologist
- RIZAL’S LIFE IN BERLINFive reasons why Rizal stayed in Berlin:
- To gain further knowledge of ophthalmology
- To further his studies of science and languages
- To observe the economic and political conditions of the German nation
- To associate with famous German scientists and scholars
- To publish his novel, Noli Me Tangere
Rizal worked as an assistant in the clinic of Dr. Scweigger, and at night, he attended lectures in the University of Berlin.
He also took private lessons in French under Madame Lucie Cerdole.
- RIZAL ON GERMAN WOMENRizal sent a letter to his sister, Trinidad, dated on March 11, 1886. In his letter, Rizal expressed his high regard and admiration for German womanhood. Rizal said that German woman is serious, diligent, educated and friendly.
Some of the German customs Rizal admired:
- On Yuletide season, people will select a pine tree from the bushes and adorned it with lanterns, papers, lights, dolls, candies, fruits, etc.
- Self-introduction to strangers in a social gathering.
- RIZAL’S DARKEST WINTER
- The winter of 1886 in Berlin was his darkest winter.
- He lived in poverty because no money arrived from Calamba and he was flat broke.
- He could not pay his landlord and he was eating only one meal a day.
- His clothes were old and threadbare.
- His health broke down due to lack of proper nourishment.
- This is one of the most memorable days in the life of Rizal.
- CHAPTER 8:
- NOLI ME TANGERE
- 1886 (winter) – memorable moment in Rizal’s life
- It was a painful episode for he was hungry, sick and despondent in a strange city.
- A great joy because his novel Noli Me Tangere, was published on March 1887.
- IDEA OF WRITING A NOVEL IN THE PHILIPPINES
Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe – The book that inspired Rizal to write a
novel about the suffering of the Filipinos to the Spaniards.
Central University in Madrid – where Rizal started writing the novel
July 2 1884 – Rizal proposed the writing of a novel about the Philippines
- THE WRITING OF NOLI
Towards the end of 1884 – Rizal began writing the novel in Madrid and finished ½ of it.
1885 – he was in Paris, he coninued writing the novel, finishing the ½ of the 2nd half
Germany – he finished the ¼ of it
Last 2 chapters – he finished it at Wilhelmsfeld in April – June 1886
December 1886 – he was in Berlin
Fernando Canon – where Rizal wrote his worries about the publishing of his novel
- MAXIMO VIOLA, SAVIOR OF NOLI
Dr. Maximo Viola
- a rich friend of Rizal from Bulacan who financed the publishing the Noli.
- lives at San Miguel, Bulacan
- December 25, 1887, he arrived at Berlin
- CHAPTER OF ELIAS AND SALOME
This chapter was deleted for some financial purposes.
February 11, 1857 – Noli was ready for printing
Berliner BuchdruckreiActienGesellschaft – a publishing house that charged the lowest rate for publishing Rizal’s novel
Php 300.00 – the cost of printing for 2,000 copies
- PRINTING OF NOLI
March 29, 1887 – Noli Me Tangere came off the press
Rizal sent copies to:
- Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor
- G. Lopez Jaena
- Mariano Ponce
- Feliz R. Hidalgo
- THE TITLE OF THE NOVEL
Noli Me Tangere – “Touch Me Not”
- from Gospel of Saint John (Chapter 30, Verses 13-17)
Rizal dedicated the Noli Me Tangere to the Philippines – “To My Country”
- CHARACTERS OF NOLI ME TANGERE & SYNOPSIS OF THE NOVEL
Crisostomo Ibarra– A young and rich Filipino who studied in Europe/ sweetheart of Maria Clara
Maria Clara– Daughter of Capitan Tiago
Padre Damaso– Franciscan friar who had been parish priest of San Diego
San Diego– Ibarra’s native town for 20 yrs.
Padre Salvi– young Dominican parish priest of Binondo
Senor Guevarra– Elderly and Kind lieutenant of guardia civil
Don Tiburcio– Bogus Spanish Physician
- Dona Victoria– wife of Don Tiburcio
Don Melchor– Captain of Cuadrillores
Sisa- Formerly a rich girl but became poor because she married a gambler
Basilio & Crispin– Sons of Sisa/ Sacristans
Elias– A boatman was a strong silent, peasant youth
Nor Juan– Architect who constructed the schoolhouse
November 11th– feast day
Ibarra’s attacked Padre Damaso produced two result:
- Engagement to Maria Clara was broken
- He was excommunicated
- Don Alfonso Linares– Cousin of Don Tiburcio
Dona Consolation– bulgarmistress of Spanish Alferez
NOLI ME TANGERE is consist of 63 chapters and epilogue
- THE NOLI BASED ON TRUTH
Maria Clara – Leonor Rivera
Crisostomo Ibarra & Elias – Rizal
Padre Salvi– Padre Antonio Piernavieja
Capitan Tiago – Capitan HilarioSunico of San Nicolas
DoñaVictorina– DoñaAgustina Medal
Basilio and Crispin – Crisostomo brother’s of Hagonoy
Padre Damaso– are the bad friars
- CHAPTER 9:
“ELIAS & SALOME” Missing Chapter of Noli
- Few people know that there is a missing chapter in the printed Noli Me Tangere, this chapter was included in the original manuscript, written in Rizal’s own handwriting However, it was crossed out in blue pencil so that it was deleted from the printed novel.
- WHY RIZAL DELETES THE CHAPTER?
- It should be recalled that Rizal was in dire financial situation in Berlin during the days when he was putting the finishing touches to the Noli.
- He knew that the cost of printing is in proportion with the number of pages of the manuscript.
- Accordingly, he rewrote several chapters making them more compact so that he could economize on the number of pages.
- He deleted one whole chapter without destroying the story of the novel and this chapter was “Elias and Salome”
- ECONOMIC was the only reason why this particular chapter was deleted.
- Elias was adversely affected. It seems that Rizal considered Ibarra a more important character although Elias was nobler.
- He even killed Elias in the novel and let Ibarra live. Later, he repented having killed Elias.
- He wrote “im sorry i have killed Elias instead of Crisostomo Ibarra .
- But when Rizal wrote the Noli his health was very bad and he never believe that he could wrote the continuation and talk about revolution.
- He have preserve the life of Elias a nobler character, a patriot, unselfish and self-sacrificing, the necessary qualities for a man to lead a revolution.
- Crisostomo Ibarra was an egoist who decided to provoke a rebellion only when he was injured through his property, his person, his love and all that he held sacred. Success cannot be expected for the enterprise of a man like that.
OF THE MISSING CHAPTER
- In a nipa hut by the placid lake, Salome a winsome girl in her early teens sat on the bamboo batalan sewing a camesa of bright colors. She was waiting for Elias to arrived. She was beautiful “like the flowerets that grow wild not attracting attention at first glance but whose beauty is revealed when we examined them carefully”. When she heard footsteps, she laid aside her sewing, went to the bamboo stair way.
- Salome noticed her lover was sad and Pensive. She tried to console him; asking about the girls @ the picnic which the Guardia Civil soldiers disturbed looking for him. Elias told her that there were many beautiful girls among whom was Maria Clara, the sweetheart of a rich young man who just came from Europe.
Afterwards, the young man rose preparing to leave, speaking in a soft voice, he said “Good-bye, Salome, The sun is setting and it won’t appear good for the people to know that night over took me here”.
- Salome was crying, for soon she would leave this house where she grew up. She explained :” It is not right for me to live alone. I’ll go to live with my relatives in Mindoro. Soon I’ll be able to pay the debt my mother left me when she died…to give up this house in which one was born and has grown up is something more than giving up one’s being. A typhoon will come , a freshet and everything will go to the lake”.
Elias remained silent for a moment, then he held her hands, and asked her: “Have you heard anyone speak ill of you? Have I sometimes worried you? Not that either? Then you are tired with my friendship & want to drive me away.”
- Salome answered: “No, don’t talk like that. I am not tired of your friendship. God knows that I am satisfied with my lot. I only desire health that I may work. I don’t envy the rich, the wealthy, but…
“Nothing. I don’t envy them as long as I have your friendship”
…..Then they have conversation. Then Elias said to Salome “Forget me, Forget a love so mad & futile. Perhaps you’ll meet there one who is not like me”
- “ Elias , exclaimed the girl reproachfully.”
“ You have misunderstood me; I speak to you as I would speak to my sister if she were alive; in my words there is not a single complaint against you. Take my advice, go home to your relatives. Here you have no one but me, & the day when I fall into the hands with my pursuers, you will be left alone for the rest of you life. improve your youth & beauty to get a good husband, such as you deserve for you don’t know what it is to live among men”
- Salome was thinking that Elias go with her.
Elias then narrated what happened earlier at the picnic that morning; how he was saved by Ibarra from the jaws of a crocodile. To show his gratitude, he vowed to repay the good deed done by Ibarra to the extend with sacrificing his life. He explained that anywhere he would go, even to Mindoro, the past would still be discovered, sooner or later.
“Well then”, Salome said, looking @ him tenderly: at least when I’m gone, live here, stay in the house. It will make you remember me; and I will not think in that
- distant land that the hurricane had carried my hunt to the lake. When my thoughts turns to these shores. The memory of you and of my house will appear to me together. Sleep where I have slept & dream it will be as though I were beside you.
“Oh” exclaimed Elias, waving his hand in desperation, “Woman, you’ll make me forget.”
After disengaging himself from her tender embrace, he left with a heavy heart, following the shadows of somber tree in the twilight. She followed her with her gazed, listening sadly to the fading footsteps in the gathering darkness.
- CHAPTER 11
Back To Calamba, 1887-88
“I shall return,but I shall find myself isolated; because those who smiled at me before will reserve their rejoicings for another happier being.
And in the meantime I run after a vain idea, perhaps a false illusion.”
- Rizal was a true Filipino. All the alluring beauties of foreign countries and all the beautiful memories of his sojourn in alien lands could not make him forget of home nor turn his back to his own nationality. True that he studied abroad, acquired the lore and languages of foreign nations, and enjoyed the friendship of many great men of the Western world; but he remained at heart a true Filipino with an unquenchable love for the Philippines and an unshakeable determination to die in the land of his birth.
- Thus, after five years of memorable sojourn in Europe, he returned to the Philippines in August, 1887. he practised medicine in Calamba. He operated successfully on his mother’s eyes and lived the quiet life of a country doctor. Unfortunately his enemies, who resented Noli, persecuted him, even menacing his life.
- Decision to Return Home…after the publication of the Noli Me Tangere
Rizal was warned not to return home by:
*Paciano (his brother)
*Sivestre Ubaldo (his brother-in-law)
*Chengoy (Jose M. Cecilio)
- Reasons why he was determine to return to the Philippines:
- to operate on his mother’s eyes
- to serve his people who had long been oppressed by Spanish tyrants
- to find out for himself how the Noli and his other writings were affecting Filipinos and Spaniards in the Philippines; and
- to find out why Leonor Rivera had remained silent.
- Delightful Trip and Arrival to Manila
Rizal left Rome by train for Marseilles, a French port
On July 3, 1887- he boarded the steamer Djemnah.
On August 6th he arrived in Manila.
*There were about fifty passengers,
including 4 English, 2 Germans,
3 Chinese, 2 Japanese,
and many Frenchmen.
*He found Manila the same as
when he left it five years ago.
- Happy Homecoming
On August 8th, the two days after his arrival in Manila, he reached Calamba.
His family welcomed him affectionately,
with plentiful tears of joy.
Paciano did not leave him during the first days
after arrival to protect him from enemy assault.
Rizal, who came to be called “Doctor Uliman”
because he came from Germany.
He was able to earn $900 as a physician
Rizal opened a gymnasium for young folks.
- Storm over the “Noli”
Rizal received a letter from Governor General Emilio Terero to come to Malacañang
Rizal visited Fr. Francisco Sanchez, Fr. Jose Bech, and Fr. Federico Faura.
Father Faura ventured an opinion that “everything in it was the truth,” but added: “You may lose your head for it.”
Don Jose Taviel de Andrade, as bodyguard of Rizal belonged to a
- The Archbishop of Manila, Msgr. Pedro Payo (a Dominican), sent a copy of the Noli to Father Rector Gregorio Echavarria of the University of Santo Tomas for examination by a committee of the faculty.*(there were no mass imprisonment or mass execution of Filipinos. He refused to be intimidated by the friars who clamored for positive repressive measures against people caught reading the novel and vindictive action against its author.)because of Gov.Gen.Terero
- DEFENDERS OF NOLI
Marcelo H. Del Pilar- editor of La Solidaridad
-he published a pamphlet entitled “CaiigatCayo”
CaiigatCayo- it means “Be slippery as an Eel”
Father Francisco Sanchez- Rizal’s beloved Jesuit professor
Don SegismundoMoret- a former President of the Council of Minister
-he read and like the book very much.
Rev. Vicente Garcia- a Filipino Catholic priest-scholar, a theologian of the Manila Cathedral and a Tagalog translator of the famous Imitation of Christ by Thomas A Kempis
Father Garcia- writing under the pen name Justo DesiderioMagalang
-he wrote a defense of the Noli which was published in Singapore as an appendix to a pamphlet dated on July 18, 1888.
- Lt. Jose Taviel de Andrade- a Spanish bodyguard,
-he was assigned as a bodyguard of Rizal by Governor-General Terrero
- between Lt. Andrade and Rizal, a beautiful friendship bloomed.
- Governor-General Terrero, influenced by a certain facts in Noli Me Tangere, ordered a government investigation of the friars estates to remedy whatever iniquities might have been presents in connection with land taxes and with tenant relations.
RIZAL AND ANDRADE
- A POEM FOR LIPA
Before Rizal left Calamba in 1888 his friend from Lipa requested him to write a poem in commemoration of the town’s elevation to a villa (city), by virtue of the Becerra Law of 1888. He wrote a poem this was the Himno Al Trabajo(Hymn to Labor). He finished it and sent to Lipa before his departure from Calamba.
- Rizal’s Studies and Travels Abroad
Group #1; DGE9
- Chapter 06-09
After finishing the 4th year of the medical course in UST, Jose Rizal decided to complete his studies in Spain.
That time, the Gov’t of Spain was a constitutional monarchy (under a written constitution which granted human right to the people)
He decided to study in Spain for the following reasons:
He was disgusted with the method of instruction of the Dominican-owned university and the racial prejudice of the Dominican Professors against Filipino students
Rizal’s Secret Mission
- Rizal’s Secret Mission
Rizal’s secret mission was to observe keenly the life and culture, languages, and customs, industries and commerce, and governments, and laws of the European nations in order to prepare himself in the mighty task of liberating his oppressed people from Spanish tyranny.
This was evidenced in his farewell letter which was delivered to his parents.
Rizal’s departure for Spain was kept secret to avoid detection by the Spanish authorities and the friars.
He used the name Jose Mercado, a cousin from Binan.
Before his secret departure, he wrote a farewell letter for his beloved parents and one for his sweetheart Leonor Rivera.
On May 3, 1882: Rizal departed on board the Spanish steamer Salvadora bound for singapore.
During the voyage to Singapore, he carefully observed the people and things on board the steamer. There were sixteen passengers including himself.
To while away the tedious boredom, Rizal played chess with fellow passengers and he won many times because Rizal was a good chess player.
May 9, 1882: The Salvador docked at Singapore. Rizal landed, registered at Hotel De La Paz and spent two days on sightseeing of the city.
In Singapore, Rizal transferred to another ship Djemnah.
On May 17, 1882: Djemnahreached Point Galle, a seacost town in southern Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and Rizal found this place lonely and Quiet.
The following day, the Djemnahreached Colombo, the capital of Ceylon and Rizal found this place “Beautiful, Smart, and Elegant”
- The Djemnah
From Colombo, it continued the voyage crossing the Indian Ocean to the cape of Guardafui, Africa. Rizal sighted the barren coast of Africa and called it “inhospitable land but famous”.
Rizal had a stopover at Aden where in he found the city hotter than Manila.
From Aden, the Djemnah proceeded to the city of Suez, the red sea terminal of the Suez Canal.
- Naples and Marseilles
From the port, the Djemnah proceeded on its way to Europe.
On June 11, 1882: Rizal reached Naples. The Italian city really pleased him because of its business activity, its lively people, and its panoramic beauty.
June 12, 1882: The steamer docked at the French Harbor of Marseilles.
Rizal reached Barcelona on June 16, 1882.
He thought of the city as ugly, with dirty little inns and inhospitable residents, because he happened to stay upon his arrival at the “town’s most ugly side”.
Later on, he changed his bad impression and found the city a great city, with an atmosphere of freedom and liberalism, its people were open-hearted, hospitable, and courageous.
- “Amor Patrio”
In Barcelona, Rizal wrote a nationalistic essay entitled “Amor Patrio” (Love of Country), his first article written on Spain’s soil.
He sent this article to his friend in Manila, BasilioTeodoro Moran, publisher of Diariong Tagalog, the first Manila bilingual newspaper.
Rizal’s “Amor Patrio” under his pen-name LaongLaan, appeared in print in Diariong Tagalog on August 20, 1882. It was published in two texts-Spanish and Tagalog.
- Rizal’s Articles
Publisher Basilio Moran, deeply impressed by “Amor Patrio” congratulated Rizal and requested for more articles.
And so, Rizal wrote his second article for Diariong Tagalog entitled “Los Viajes” (Travels)
His third article was entitled “Revista de Madrid” (Review of Madrid) which he wrote in Madrid on November 29, 1882.
While he was at Barcelona, Rizal received a sad news about the cholera that was ravaging Manila and the provinces which caused a lot of people’s death.
Another sad news from the Philippines, was the letter of Chengoy recounting the unhappiness of Leonor Rivera who was getting thinner because of the absence of a loved one.
And so, Paciano advised Rizal to finish his medical course in Madrid.
Rizal enrolled in the Universidad Central de Madrid in two courses- Medicine and Philosophy and Letters.
He also studied painting and sculpture in the Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando and took lessons in French, German, and English under private instructors.
His thirst for knowledge of music, he visited the art galleries and museums and read books on all subjects in order to broaden his cultural background.
Rizal knew that he came to Spain to study and prepare himself for the service to his fatherland.
He spent his money on food, clothing, lodging, and books.
He spent his leisure time reading and writing at his boarding house, practicing fencing, shooting at the gymnasium.
Rizal joined the Circulo Hispano-Filipino (Hispano-Philippine Circle) and wrote a poem entitled “Me Piden Versos” (They ask me for Verses)
- Consuelo Ortiga y Perez
Rizal was not handsome although he possessed an aura of charisma due to his many-splendored talents and noble character which made him attractive to romantic young women.
No wonder the prettier of Don Pablo’s daughters (Consuelo) fell in love with him.
He composed a lovely poem entitled “A la Senorita C. O. y P.”
Suddenly he backed out for two reasons:
He was still engaged to Leonor Rivera
His friend and co-worker in the Propaganda Movement, Eduardo de Lete, was madly in love with Consuelo.
During Rizal’s first summer vacation in Madrid, he went to Paris from June 17 to August 20, 1883.
Like all tourists, he enjoyed the attractive sights, the historical places, etc. Although unlike ordinary tourists, Rizal spent many hours in Museums, Botanical gardens, Libraries, Art galleries, and Hospitals.
- Rizal as a Mason
In Spain, Rizal came in close contact with Spanish liberal and republican Spaniards who were mostly masons.
March 1883, Rizal joined the masonic lodge called Acacia in Madrid. He became a mason so that he could secure Freemasonry’s aid in his fight against the friars in the Philippines.
Later on, he transferred to Lodge Solidaridadwhere he became a Master Mason.
He was awarded the diploma as a Master Mason by Le Grand Orient de France in Paris.
- Chapter 09-12
- Rizal’s Grand Tour of Europe with Viola
-Companion: Dr. Maximo Viola
-May 11, 1887
-Rizal’s luggage includes letters from his family and friends.
-Regional Floral Exposition
-Visited Dr. Adolph B. Meyer
(Museum of Art)
-Met Dr. Jagor who advised them to wire Blumentritt
-Stopover to wire Blumentritt
- LEIMERITZ, BOHEMIA
-Arrived on May 13, 1887 (1:30 p.m)
-Meeting with Blumentritt
-Greeted each other in fluent German
-They stayed from May 13 to May 16
-Kind-hearted, old Austrian professor
-Amazed by Rizal
-helped Rizal &Viola during their stay in Leimeritz
- BEAUTIFUL MEMORIES OF LEIMERITZ
-Enjoyed the hospitality of Blumentritt’s family:
Rosa(wife), Children(Dora, Conrad and Fritz
-Was invited to a beer garden
-The Burgomaster(town mayor) was also amazed by Rizal’s “privileged talent”
-At the Tourist’s Club of Leimeritz, he praised Austria’s idyllic scenes and its hospitable, nature-loving and noble people.
-He painted a portrait of Blumentritt and gave it to him.
-Met a renowned scientist named Dr. Carlos Czelopak.
-May 16(9:45 A.M) They left Leimeritz by train
-Carried letters of recommendation from Dr. Willkomm
-Visited the tomb of Copernicus, museum of Natural History and the famous cave of San Juan Nepomuceno.
-Rizal was fascinated by its beautifulbuildings, religious images, haunting waltzes and majestic charm.
- DANUBIAN VOYAGE TO LINTZ
-May 24, Rizal andViola left Vienna on a river boat
-June 19, 1887
Treated Viola to a blowout
It was his 26th birthday
-Spent his 15 delightful days in Geneva
-June 23, Viola and Rizal parted ways
- Rizal resents exhibition of Igorots in 1887 Madrid Exposition
-exposition of the Philippines in Madrid, Spain
Deplorable conditions of the primitive Igorots
-Turin, Milan, Venice and Florence
-June 27,1887- Rome
-June 29- Feast day of St. Peter and St. Paul(visited the Vatican
- Hongkong and Macao 1888
*full-grown man of 27 years of age
*embittered victim of human iniquities
-February 3,1888 (left Manila for Hongkong)
-February 7(stopover at Amony)
He was not feeling well
It was raining hard.
He heard that the city was dirty.
-February 8(arrival at Hongkong)
He was welcomed by Filipino residents, including Jose Basa, Balbino Mauricio and Manuel Yriarte.
- -Jose Sainz de Varanda
*former secretary of Governor General Terrero
*shadowed Rizal’s movement
*believed to be a spy to Rizal
-Rizal was accompanied by Basa
-visited the theatre, casino, cathedral and churches, pagodas, botanical garden and bazaars.
-Feb.19-hewitnesses a procession
-Feb.20-returned to Hongkong
- Experiences in Hongkong
1.Noisy celebration of Chinese New Year(Feb.11 to 13)
2.Boisterous Chinese theatre
3.Marathon lauriat party
Departure from hongkong
-Feb.22, 1888-left for Japan
- Romantic Interlude in Japan 1888
-one of Rizal’s happiest interludes was his visit in the “Land of the Cherry Blossoms” for one month and a half (Feb.28-Apr.13)
-fell inlove with Seiko Usui(O-Sei-San)
Rizal Arrives in Yokohama
-visited by Juan Perez Caballero
-invited Rizal to live at the Spanish Legation
- Rizal accepted it for two reasons:
1.He could economize his living expenses by staying at the legation.
2.He had nothing to hide from the prying eyes of the Spanish authorities.
-March 7( checked out of Tokyo Hotel and lived at the Spanish Legation)
-He studied the Japanes language and Japanese drama.
- Rizal’s Impression of Japan
Beauty of the country-flowers, mountains, and scenic panoramas.
The cleanliness, politeness and industry of the Japanese people.
The picturesque dress and simple charm of the Japanese women
Few thieves in Japan.
Beggars were rarely seen.
- Romance with O-Sei-San
-O-Sei-San was a lonely samurai’s daughter of 23 years old and had never yet experienced the ecstacyof true love.
-She was Rizal’s ideal womanhood: beauty,charm, modesty and intelligence.
-More than a sweetheart, she was his guide , interpreter and tutor.
-She improved his knowledge of Nippongo and Japanese history.
- Sayonara, Japan
-On April 13, 1888, he left Japan with a heavy heart for he knew he would never see again Japan and O-Sei-San.
O-Sei-San after Rizal’s departure
-She mourned for a long time the loss of her lover. She became resigned to her fate, cherishing unto death the nostalgic memories of her romance with Rizal.
About 1897, a year after Rizal’s execution, she married Mr. Alfred Chartlon and was blessed with one child named Yuriko.
- Chapter 13
- Rizal’s visit to the US(1888)
April 28, 1888: Rizals first time in America
First went to San Francisco riding the steamer “Blegic”
All passengers of this ship was under quarantine since there was a cholera epidemic
Rizal knew that there was no cholera epidemic at the Far East during that time; he then found out that the reason why the ship he rode was placed under quarantine was because of political motivation.
This is where he witnessed discrimination of Chinese and Japanese by the Americans
May 4, 1888: Rizal was allowed to go ashore
- Rizal’s visit to the US(1888)
Rizal stayed at the Palace hotel
Rizal stayed in SF for two day
May 6, 1888: Rizal left SF for Oakland riding a ferry boat
In Oakland he boarded a train for his trip across the continent
May 7, 1888: Rizal was in Reno, Nevada.
May 8, 1888: Rizal was in Utah and Denver
May 9, 1888: Rizal was in Colorado
May 10, 1888: Rizal was in Nebraska
May 11, 1888: Rizal woke up in Chicago
May 12, 1888: Rizal was in Canada
May 13, 1888: Rizal was in Albany
- Rizal’s visit to the US(1888)
May 13, 1888: Rizals grand transcontinental trip ended at exactly 11:10am
May 13: Rizal was in New York
May 16, 1888: left NY for Liverpool on board the steamer “the city of rome”
Rizals good and bad impressions of America:
Material progress. All the cities he went to were flourishing.
The drive and energy of the Americans
The natural beauty of the land
The high standard of living and the opportunities of a better life
The only bad impression of Rizal was that there was no racial equality in America
- Chapter 14
- Rizal in London(1888-89)
After visiting the US Rizal lived in London for one year
Reasons why he chose this English city
To improve his knowledge of English language
To study Morga’sSucesos de las Islas Filipinas(only available at the British Museum)
London was a safe place to continue his fight against Spanish tyranny
Continued to write for La Solidaridad in defense of his people against spain
Made a letter for the young women of Malolos
Had a romance with Gertrude Beckett
Won a lot of friends during his trans-atlantic voyage from NY to Liverpool
- Rizal in London(1888-89)
Entertained Europeans and American passengers with his yo-yo
May 24, 1888: Rizal arrived at Liverpool, England
Lived in Dr. Antonio Ma. Regidor’s house for a while.
Eventually found a boarding place, he was a boarder of the Beckett family
Rizal did most of his research at the British museum
Good and Bad news reached Rizal from home
1. Persecution of Filipinos who signed the Anti-Friar petition
2. Persecution of the Calamba tenants including Rizal’s family and relatives
3. Furious attacks on Rizal by Spanish senators
4. Rizals brother in law was exiled to Bohol
- Rizal in London(1888-89)
A friend of Rizal was arrested and jailed in Bilibid prison for keeping a copy of Noli.
1. The good news that reached rizal was the defense of Noli by Rev. Vicente Garcia against the friars.
Annotating Morga’s book was considered his greatest achievement during his stay in London
Early September 1888, Rizal visited Paris for a week for research
Rizal was entertained by Juan Luna and his wife during his stay in London
December 1888: Rizal visited Barcelona and Madrid
This was where Rizal first met Marcelo H Del Pilar and Mariano Ponce(two titans of the propaganda movement)
Rizal returned to London and spent Christmas and New year’s day there
- Rizal in London(1888-89)
December 31, 1888: Asociacion La Solidaridad was inaugurated. Rizal was chosen honorary president
February 15, 1889: La Solidaridad in Barcelona was founded by Graciano Lopez Jaena
Rizals first article in the La Solidaridad was entitles Los Agricultores Filipinos. Published march 25,1889.
Wrote the Tagalog version of The women of malolos on Feb 22 1889. This letter was about the Filipino woman and their rights
Had a romantic interlude with Gertrude Beckett
The relationship did not last long for Rizal had a mission to accomplish in life
Before he left London Rizal finished four sculptural work
1. Prometheus bound
2. The triumph of death over life
3. The triumph of science over death
4. A carving of the heads of the Beckett sisters
March 19, 1889: left London for paris
Rizal was sad, he had so many fun memories during his stay in London
- Chapter 15
- Rizal’s Second Sojourn in Paris and the Universal Exposition of 1889
Rizal had a hard time looking for living quarters in Paris
For a short time Rizal lived in the house of his friend Valentin Ventura. This was where he polished the annotated edition of Morga’s book
He was able to find a room and lived with two other Filipinos, Captain Justo Trinidad and Jose Albert
Inspite of a joyous lifestyle in Paris, Rizal kept himself busy. Continued researching. Spent most of his time at the National Library
During his spare time he spent time with his friends and usually had dinner together
- Rizal’s Second Sojourn in Paris and the Universal Exposition of 1889
May 6, 1889: Exposition of paris opened. Rizal was fascinated
March 19, 1889: Kidlat club was formed by Rizal
The kidlat club was then replaced by Indios Bravos
Another secret society the Rizal formed was the R.D.L.M.
Paris 1890: annotated edition of Morga’sSucesos was published
All those time that Rizal spent in the National museum helped him enrich his knowledge in history
Rizal wrote the “Philippines within a colony”
Wrote the essay”Indolence of the Filipinos”
Rizal was planning to establish a modern college in Hong Kong
- Chapter 16
- Rizal left Paris
On January 28, 1890, Rizal left Paris for Brussels, capital of Belgium.
Two reasons why Rizal left Paris.
The cost of living in Paris was very high because of the Universal Exposition.
The gay social life of the city hampered his literary works.
- Life in Brussels
Rizal was accompanied by Jose Albert when he moved to Brussels. They lived in a modest boarding house on 38 Rue Philippe Champagne. Later Albert left the city, and was replaced by Jose Alejandro, an engineering student.
In Brussels, Rizal was busy writing his second novel, El Filibusterismo which is a continuation of the Noli. Aside from writing its chapters, he wrote articles for La Solidaridad.
- Articles Published in La Solidaridad
“A La Defensa” (To La Defensa), April 90, 1889
“La Verdad Para Todos” (The Truth For All), May 31, 1889
“Vicente Barrantes’ Teatro Tagalo” June 15 ,1889
“Una Profanacion” (A Profanation), July 31,1889
“Verdades Nuevas” (New Truths), July 31, 1889
“Crueldad” (Cruelty), August 15, 1889
“Diferencias” (Differences), September 15, 1889
“Inconsequencias” (Inconsequences), November 30, 1889
“Llanto y Risas” (Tears and laughter), November 30, 1889
“Ingratitudes” (Ingratitude), January 15, 1890
- Rizal Criticizes Madrid Filipino for Gambling
In Brussels, Rizal received news from Juan Luna and Valentin Ventura that the Filipinos in Spain were destroying the good name of their nation by gambling too much. This urged Rizal to do something about it. Rizal wrote to M.H. Del Pilar on May 28 , 1890 to remind the Filipinos in Madrid that they did not come to Europe to gamble, but to work for their Fatherland’s freedom.
- Bad news from home and preparation to go home
Letters from home which Rizal received in Brussels worried him. The Calamba agrarian trouble was getting worse. The management of Dominican hacienda continually raised the land rents until such time that Rizal’s father refused to pay his rent. The Domincan Order filed a suit in court to dispossess the Rizal family of their lands in Calamba.
In the face of sufferings which afflicted his family, Rizal planned to go home. He could not not stay in Brussels writing a book while his parents, relatives, and friends in the Philippines were persecuted. Rizal wrote a letter to Ponce, dated July 18, 1890, he expressed his determination to go home
- Decision to go to Madrid
All his friends were horrified by Rizal’s plan to return to the Philippines. They warned him of the danger that awaited him at home. But Rizal ignored the dire warning of his friends. Something, however, happened that suddenly made him change his mind. It was a letter from Paciano which related that they lost the case against the Dominicans in Manila, but they appealed it to the Supreme Court in Spain, hence a lawyer was needed to handle it in Madrid. Rizal wrote to M.H. del Pilar on June 20, 1890 retaining the latter’s services as lawyer. He further informed M.H. del Pilar that he was going to Madrid , in order to supervise the handling of the case. In another letter to Ponce, written at Brussels, July 29, 1890, Rizal announced that he was leaving Brussels at the beginning of the following month and would arrived in Madrid about the 3rd or 4th August.
- Chapter 17
- Rizal Arrived in Madrid
On August, 1890, Rizal arrived in Madrid, Spain.
Rizal failed to seek justice for his family and the Calamba tenants.
Dissapointment piled on Rizal from the two fought duels with Antonio Luna and Wencenslao Retana. His fiance also left him and married a british engineer.
Jose Rizal displayed resilient strength of character and survived.
- Failure to get justice for family
Rizal immediately asked for help of the filipino colony to seek justice for his family and for the oppressed Calamba tenants.
Asociacion Hispano-Filipina, and the liberal Spanish newspapers help fight securing justice for the Calamba tenants and Rizal’s family.
Terrible news reached Rizal in Madrid as he was fighting for justice. Rizals brother in law, Silvestre Ubaldo received a copy of ejecment order by the dominicans against Franciso Rizal and other Calamba tenants.
In desperation, Rizal sought the aid of the liberal Spanish statesmen, who were former members of the ministry. Unfortunately they just gave honeyed words of sympathy, and nothing else.
Rizal was urged to see Queen Regent Maria Cristina, but with the lack of gold and connections, Rizal was unable to do so.
- Rizal’s Eulogy to Panganiban and his duels
Rizal was devastated by the death of his friend, Jose Ma. Panganiban. He died on August 19, 1890, after a lingering illness
After the death of Jose Ma. Panganiban Rizal wrote a great eulogy to Panganiban
August, 1890, Rizal attended a social reunion of the Filipinos in Madrid and had with a fight with Atonio Luna.
Rizal challenged Retana to a duel. Retana is a talented Spanish scholar and Rizal’s bitter enemy of the pen
Late 1890 there arose an unfortunate rivalry between Rizal and M.H. del Pilar for supremacy. An election took place Rizal won but declined the coveted position and left Madrid.
- Chapter 18
- With the Bousteads in Biarritz
Rizal arrived in Biarritz at the beggining of February, 1891 and was welcomed by the Bousteads family. The one month vacation made Rizal forget the bitter memories in Madrid and had an affection for Nelly Boustead
On March 29, 1891 his departure from Blumentritt he finished the manuscript of El Filibusterismo
- To Paris and back to Brussels
On March 30, 1891 Rizal went back to Paris and stayed at the home of his friend, Valentin Ventura, on 4 Rue de Chateaudum and wrote Jose Ma. Basa in Hong Kong on April 4 expressing his desire to go to British Colony to practise aphthalmology in order to earn his living.
By mid of April, 1891 Rizal went back to Brussels and was welcomed by the Jacoby sisters
From Brussels on May 1, 1891 he notified the Propaganda authorities of his retirement. Rizal also immediately stopped writing for the La Solidaridad after his retirement.
On May 30, 1891 the revision of the El Fili was completed and was ready for Published.
- Chapter 19
- EL FILIBUSTERISMO PUBLISHED IN GHENT
• October,1887 – Jose Rizal begun writing El Fili. While practicing medicine in Calamba.• 1888- in London he made changes in the plot and add more characters in Paris and Medrid. He finished his manuscript in Biarriztz on March 19, 1891• three years have spent to finish this novel• July 5,1891 – Rizal left Brussels for Ghent because 1. The cost of printing there was cheaper than Brussels2. To escape from the enticing attraction of Petite Suzanne.• Jose Alejandro (form Pamp.) and Edilberto Evangelista (from Manila)- his competitors• Owning a limited funds Rizal board at a cheap boarding house with Alejandro.
- • Tea, sugar, alcohol and a box of biscuits – is divided to save money• F. MEYER-VAN LOO PRESS – is the press found by Rizal to publish his novel. He pawned his jewels in order to pay down payment. Our hero became running low of budget. But he received money from basa and P200 from Rodrigues Arias for the copies of Monrga’sSucesos sold in Manila.• On August 6 – he suspended the publish of the novel because of the lack of funds. On this date he wrote a letter to Basa in Hong Kong enclosing clipping, the secong part is advanced and stoped at page112.• Ventura, savior of the Fili – same as the novel in Noli Rizal became broke and he wants to burn his work but whenever he realize there still more people who love their country• Valentin Ventura in Paris gave Rizal funds to resume the novel.
- • September 18,1891 came off the press, immediately sent two copies to hongkong and Basa other for Sixto Lopez• Jose Rizal sent the orig. manuscript to Valentin who load to publish the novel• He also sent copies to Blumentritt, Mariano Ponce, G. Lopez Jaena, TH Padro De Travera, Antonio and Juan Luna and more• El Nevo Regimen issued about the novel of October. • Dedicated to Gom-bur-za – students, travelers, OFW• 10 000 – valentine Venture, 279 pages of long sheets of paper
- Chapter 20
- Ophthclmic surgron in Hong Kong
Rizal went to hongkong after the novel published from europe. He left Europe because of the ff.1. life was unbearable in Europe because of his political diff. with MH del and other fillipino in spain.• 2.to be near his idolized philippines and family.• October 3, 1891 – he left for hongkong.• two weeks publication of el fili he went to paris to say good bye to lunasmpardo de taveras, Venturas and other friends,• German ladies was gossiping about Rizal because he is alone and the only asian in the train. though Rizal can understand german he didnt bother.
- • suddenly the train door opened and a German said if Rizal is such a gentleman he would close the door for them then after Rizal heard it he stood up• And close it. Afterward he talk to the German ladies and they were embarrassed.November 20 1891- he arrived in hongkong welcoming him with Filipino relativesDecember 1, 1891 – Rizal is asking a permission to go back to Philippines.25 persons from calamba with Neneng, Sisa,Lucia, Paciano, and his father was caught too. • Queen Regent of Spain- Hidalgo also states that we wants to ensure justice. but the queen won’t listenbefore Christmas of 1891- this father arrived and his brother in law named Silvestre Ubaldo afterwards his mother and sisters followed though her mother is almost blind because ofthe spaniards.
- Ophthalimic Surgeon – he studied in hongkong and had a friend dr named Lorenzo P. Marques who helped him build a wide clientele and the dr. always turned over of eye cases.Brithish, Chinese, Portuguese and americans was his clients.Finally the vision of the mother of rizal was able to see because of himself
Writing in Hong kong – Angkarapatannangtao. La Nacion Espanola. Sa MgaKababayan.Decision to return to Manila- May 1892 Rizal Made up his mind. This decision surprised the ff.1. To confer with Governador Despujol regarding his borneo colonization project.2. To establish Liga Filipina in manila3.To prove that Eduardo de Lete was wrong in attacking him in Midrid.
- Last HongKong Letters – June 19, they celebrated the bday of Rizal in hongkongJune 20, he wrote a letter for his death he gave it to Dr, Marques to be open after his death. Rizal falls into Spanish trap- anti religious and anti patriotic agitation.
- Chapter 21
- SECOND HOMECOMING AND THE LIGA FILIPINA
August 1887 was his first homecoming .. he arrived in manila in June 1892arrival in manila with sister – he arrived in June 26 with Lucia going to the hotel de oriente with a major.Visiting friends in central Luzon- malolos(bulacan), san fernando (pampanga), tarlac, bacolor (pampanga). On the next day he returned to manila, the houses he visited was raid by the guardia civil who took some copies of noli and el fili and some subversive pamphlets.
Other interview with Desoujol – after the arrival Rizal has been interviewed by Governor General Despujol.Founding of the Liga Filipina- a civic league of Filipinos, which he desired to established and its role on the socio-economic life of the people.
- President – Ambrosio SalvadorSecretary – Deodato ArellanoTreasurer – BonifacioArevolaAgustin de la Rosa – FisalConditions of Liga Filipina1. To unite the archipelago into one compact and homogenous body2. Mutual Protection in every want and Necessity3. Defense against all violence and injustice.4. Encourage of Education, agriculture and commerce. 5.Study of application and reformes.
- motto of liga Filipina: ONE LIKE THEM (unus instar omnium)Rizal Arrested and Jailed in fort Santiago – July 6 he resume his interview with the governor general but suddenly showed him a printed leaflets were entitled PobresFrailes (Poor fiars) under the authorship of Fr. Jacinto from paris. Rizal insisted having those leaflets where they arrived in hongkong that found nothing.
- Chapter 22
- Rizal’s Exile in Dapitan (1892-96)
During these times, Rizal practiced medicine, pursued scientific studies, continued his artistic and literary works, widened his knowledge of languages, promoted community development projects, and engaged in farming and commerce.
Rizal lived in the house of the commandant, Captain Carnicero, where they had a good warden-prisoner relationship.
>Sept. 21, 1892 - Rizal, Carnicero & Equilor won P20,000 in the lottery.
>During thes times, Rizal had a long and scholarly debate with Father Pastells on religion which revealed Rizal’s anti-Catholic idea.
Fr. Pablo Pastells – the Jesuit superior during the time Rizal was exiled in Dapitan. Pastells was Rizal’s spiritual director.
- Rizal-Pastells Debate on religion(5 Letters):
I. 3 September 1892
Rizal thanks Fr. Pastells for his gift of a book by Sarda. Father Pastells goes into lengthy philosophic-religious disquisitions – Sends him a booklet, Contemptus Mundi.
II. 11 November 1892
Rizal prefers “light” to “shade”. He bears his misfortunes philosophically. Fr. Pastells is deeply interested in Rizal’s eternal salvation.
III. 9 January 1893
Rizal explains his concept of God. Fr. Pastells sent him a long letter much like a sermon on religion.
IV. 4 April 1893
Rizal reiterates his concept of God, his belief in revelation, and his attitude toward miracles. Father Pastells discusses Rizal’s religious views.
V. June 1893
Rizal asks that he and Fr. Pastells end their correspondence.
“I deeply appreciate your desire to enlighten me and illumine my path. But I fear it is a useless task…” -Rizal
- >30 Mar 1893 - Juan Lardet – wrote a letter to Rizal, apologizing for his inuslting comments about Rizal.
Juan Lardet - a French businessman who had a quarrel with Rizal because he purchased some poor-quality lumber from Rizal.
>Father Sanchez - Rizal’s favorite Jesuit who tried to persuade Rizal to discard his unorthodox views on the Catholic religion.
>Ferdinand Blumentritt - Rizal’s close friend who translated the latter’s first book, Noli me Tangere, into German and wrote the preface to Rizal’s second book, El filibusterismo.
Rizal wrote to him in December 19, 1893 telling him about Rizal’s idyllic life in Dapitan.
>Florencio Namanan - aka “Pablo Mercado”. The one who was hired by the Recollect friars so spy on Rizal.
- >Rizal was also an eye specialist. He cured many rich patients such as Don Ignacio Tumarong &Don Florencio Azacarraga. Rizal became interested in local medicine and the use of medicinal plants. He studied their curative values for the poor patients who could not afford to buy imported medicine, he prescribed the local medicinal plants.
- Rizal built a water system without any help from the government.
- He got rid of the malaria infested Dapitan.
- He remodelled the town plaza and arranged a lighting system all around the town.
> 1893 - Rizal established a school, gave the children free education.
- Chapter 23
- Last Trip Abroad
-Rizal travelled from Dapitan to Manila-He missed the regular steamer to Spain “Isla de Luzon”-Stayed on board Spanish cruiser “Castilla”-August 26, 1896, Andres Bonifacio and Katipunan start revolution in Balintawak-Rizal leaves for Spain aboard “Isla de Panay”-Upon leaving for Spain, Rizal receives 2 letters of introduction for the Minister of War and the Minister of Colonies-Upon arriving in Singapore, Rizal was urged by fellow Filipinos to stay. He refused as he had given his word to Gov. Gen. Blanco-Upon arriving in Barcelona, Rizal was arrested and taken to the fortress Monjuich-General Despujol sends Rizal back to Manila to be tried by court
- Chapter 24
- Last Homecoming and Trial
-Rizal is kept under heavy guard while in transit from Barcelona to Manila-October 8, a friendly soldier tells Rizal that newspapers are full of stories about him being blamed for the revolution-October 11, Rizal’s diary is confiscated by Spanish authorities-Upon arriving in Singapore, friends attempt to rescue Rizal by means of inciting Habeus Corpus-Unfortunately, the request is denied as the ship bearing Rizal to Manila os classified as a warship and as such is out of Singaporean jurisdiction
- -November 3, the “Colon” arrives in Manila-Rizal transferred to Fort Santiago-Rizal subjected to 5-day investigation by Judge Advocate, Colonel Franciso Olive-Rizal chooses Don Luis Taviel de Andrade to defend him in court-Rizal pleads “not guilty” to inciting rebellion-8:00 am, December 26, 1896, Rizal’s mock trial begins-Rizal sentenced by the court to death-December 28th, Polavieja (new Gov. Gen.) approves Rizal’s execution by firing squad